Beginning Psychology

moodster05
Quiz by moodster05, updated more than 1 year ago
moodster05
Created by moodster05 almost 6 years ago
34
1

Description

Covers cognitive development (including the work of Piaget, Erickson, Marcia, and Kubler-Ross), classical and operant conditioning, and some aspects of memory. Covers chapters 5-8 of Psychology 10 ed. by David G. Myers.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What are the four developmental stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
Answer
  • Sensori-motor
  • Preoperational
  • Post Operational
  • Operational
  • Concrete Operations
  • Formal Operations

Question 2

Question
According to Piaget's stages of cognitive development, which of the following characteristics are part of four year old Tommy's current stage of development?
Answer
  • Motor Abilities
  • Representational Thought
  • Centration
  • Conservation
  • Language
  • Theory of Mind
  • Abstract Thought
  • Object Permanence

Question 3

Question
Of the following, which stage or stages are considered Domain General?
Answer
  • Sensori-motor
  • Concrete Operations
  • Preoperational
  • Formal Operations
  • Operational

Question 4

Question
For her fifth birthday, Katie's parent's decide to take her to the aquarium for the first time. While at the aquarium, Katie points to a dolphin as it swims past and exclaims "Mom, look at the big fish!" Since Katie has never seen a dolphin before, her mother kneels down and explains to Katie that dolphins are mammals, not fish. After being told that the dolphin, which matches her schema for fish, is in fact not a fish, which state will Katie most likely be in?
Answer
  • Cognitive Equalibrium
  • Cognitive Disequalibrium

Question 5

Question
In order for Katie to return to a state of cognitive equilibrium, what must occur to account for the new information she has just received about dolphins?
Answer
  • Katie must adapt by assimilating the new information into her existing schema for mammals.
  • Katie must adapt by assimilating the new information into her schema for fish.
  • Katie must adapt by accommodating her schema for fish to account for the new information.
  • Katie must adapt by accommodating her schema for mammals to account for the new information.

Question 6

Question
If while at the aquarium Katie sees a large school of fish and notices their fins, tail, and gills, what is most likely to occur?
Answer
  • Katie will assimilate these new fish into her existing schema for fish.
  • Katie will accommodate her schema for fish to include these new fish.

Question 7

Question
Joe has recently turned twelve years old and is struggling in his 6th grade algebra class even though he excelled at arithmetic in elementary school. Why might this be?
Answer
  • At age twelve, Joe has just entered the formal operations stage of development and has not yet had time to completely develop his ability to think about possible outcomes.
  • Joe has not yet accommodated his schema for math to include the alphabet.
  • Joe was naturally born stupid so his DNA won't let him learn algebra.

Question 8

Question
At about what age is the brain truly mature?
Answer
  • 18
  • 21
  • 25
  • 28

Question 9

Question
Which of the following might help to best explain the popular saying "You can't teach an old dog new tricks"?
Answer
  • By the time you reach old age the brain has already finished developing so it is difficult to form new interneural connections.
  • By the time you reach old age your brain has stopped proliferating so it is difficult to form the new interneural connections required to learn a new task.
  • By the time you reach old age your brain has already severed many of the existing interneural connections required to perform a previously unfamiliar task through a process known as pruning.

Question 10

Question
Young adolescents' irrational behavior can be largely attributed to their heavy reliance on the amygdala due to a dopamine deficiency caused by the decreased activity of the nucleus accumbens which regulates motivation to seek rewards.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
______________, a hormone that mediates sexual gratification, is inhibited by dopamine.
Answer
  • Norepinephrine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Prolactin
  • Serotonin

Question 12

Question
What is the conflict Erikson identified for the stage in the transition years section?
Answer
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Integrity vs. Despair
  • Trust vs. Mistrust

Question 13

Question
Victoria's parents are angry with her and think she is acting irresponsibly because she is constantly changing jobs and never sticks with any of them for very long. Which of Marcia's four statuses is Victoria in?
Answer
  • Diffusion
  • Foreclosure
  • Moratorium
  • Acheivment

Question 14

Question
A person who is in foreclosure has:
Answer
  • Commitment but no exploration
  • Exploration but no commitment
  • Both commitment and exploration
  • Neither commitment or exploration

Question 15

Question
At around 50 years old, which of the following will have already begun decline or will begin decline?
Answer
  • Muscular strength
  • Reaction time
  • Sensory abilities
  • Cardiac output
  • Hormones and fertility in men
  • Distance perception
  • Fluid intelligence
  • Crystalline intelligence

Question 16

Question
While walking down a hallway in a hospital you hear some nurses discussing the recent increase in the amount of praying done by a terminal cancer patient. Which stages of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross' stages of grief has the patient most likely already progressed through?
Answer
  • Denial
  • Anger/Agression
  • Bargaining
  • Despair
  • Acceptance

Question 17

Question
During WWII, the Germans bombed London on a regular basis. At first the sound of the bombs as they exploded upon impact caused instant panic from the people. Eventually, the people began to regard these bombing as a regular occurrence and the shock caused by the explosions was greatly diminished. What might help to explain this?
Answer
  • The sound of the explosions damaged their hearing and made them less sensitive to future explosions.
  • The people habituated to the stimulus of the explosions by decreasing their level of sensitivity to them.
  • The people habituated to the stimulus of the explosions by decreasing their response to them.

Question 18

Question
Which of the following are monocular depth cues?
Answer
  • Interposition
  • Texture gradient
  • Relative size
  • Retinal Disparity
  • Convergence

Question 19

Question
To complete the word W_tch, which type of processing would you use?
Answer
  • Top down
  • Bottom up

Question 20

Question
Which of these scientists are known for their work involving classical conditioning?
Answer
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • John B. Watson
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Abraham Maslow

Question 21

Question
Mason makes a change to one of his existing schemas. This is possible through the process of _____________.
Answer
  • Accomodation
  • Assimilation
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning

Question 22

Question
The first symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease involve failing to maintain existing memories and the inability to form certain types of new memories. Based on this, we know that the first brain structure most directly affected by Alzheimer's Disease is the ____________.
Answer
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Thallamus
  • Amygdala
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hippocampus

Question 23

Question
Ivan Pavlov discovered operant conditioning, a form of basic learning which allows us to learn basic associations that enable us to operate more efficiently in our environments.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
In an experiment, John Watson presented an infant known as "Little Albert" with a white rat. When Little Albert reached out to touch the rat, Watson struck a metal bar with a hammer behind Little Albert's head. After seven repeats of seeing the rat and hearing the frightening noise, Little Albert burst into tears at the sight of the rat. Based on this experiment, which of the following is/are correct?
Answer
  • Neutral Stimulus- the white rat before conditioning
  • Neutral Stimulus- the loud sound of the hammer striking the metal bar
  • Unconditioned Stimulus- the loud sound of the hammer striking the metal bar
  • Unconditioned Stimulus- the sight of the white rat before conditioning
  • Unconditioned Response- crying because of the loud sound of the hammer striking the metal bar
  • Unconditioned Response- crying at the sight of the rat
  • Conditioned Stimulus- the loud sound of the hammer striking the metal bar after conditioning
  • Conditioned Stimulus- the sight of the white rat after conditioning
  • Conditioned Response- crying because of the loud sound of the hammer striking the metal bar
  • Conditioned Response- reaching out to touch the white rat

Question 25

Question
Jill has recently developed a habit of swearing while she is away from home. Her friend Tanner becomes concerned about Jill's new habit and decides to secretly inform Jill's parents about her swearing every Saturday when he comes to mow their lawn. Which of the following would be effective ways for Jill's parents to change the undesired habit?
Answer
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment
  • None of these

Question 26

Question
Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten or extinguished.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
Which of the following describes a continuous reinforcement schedule?
Answer
  • Rapid learning but low resistance to extinction
  • Slower learning but greater resistance to extinction
  • Reinforce behavior after a set number of responses
  • Reinforce the first response after a fixed time period

Question 28

Question
There are no true photographic memories.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 29

Question
Jason is determined to get an A on his upcoming Psychology 1010 exam. In order to ensure he is prepared for the test, Jason decides to stay up all night studying the exam. Much to his dismay, Jason only earns a B on the exam despite all of his hard work. What might help to explain why Jason didn't do as well on the exam as he had hoped even though he studied so hard?
Answer
  • By staying up all night, Jason did not provide his hippocampus the opportunity to transfer the information stored in his short term memory to his long term memory.
  • As Jason became more and more tired while studying, his ability to focus gradually began to decline and less of the information he was studying remained in his short term memory.
  • Although Jason's determination is admirable, his long, continuous study session created a large decrease in the amount of information stored in his short term memory during the middle of his studying due to the primacy-recency effect.
  • Regardless of the amount of studying he did Jason's goal was never feasible because his professor is insane and makes his exams so difficult that nobody could realistically invest the amount of time it would require to get an A. (pick this one)

Question 30

Question
Which of the following describe the phonological loop?
Answer
  • Used to maintain auditory information for a short period of time
  • Used for acoustic rehearsal
  • Used to transfer information between short and long term memory
  • Your brain's "logic" center

Question 31

Question
Which of the following properly identify the order in which memories are formed?
Answer
  • External Events, Sensory Memory, Working Memory, Long Term Memory
  • External Events, Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory
  • External Events, Working Memory, Sensory Memory, Long Term Memory
  • External Events, Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory, Working Memory, Long Term Memory
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

History of Psychology
mia.rigby
Biological Psychology - Stress
Gurdev Manchanda
Psychology A1
Ellie Hughes
Psychology subject map
Jake Pickup
Memory Key words
Sammy :P
Psychology | Unit 4 | Addiction - Explanations
showmestarlight
Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
The Biological Approach to Psychology
Gabby Wood
Cognitive Psychology - Capacity and encoding
Tess W
Chapter 5: Short-term and Working Memory
krupa8711
Psychology and the MCAT
Sarah Egan