A law that determines if people are allowed to access computers
and be able to modify the data on the computer system.
It makes 'Unauthorised access' illegal, including hacking or
other techniques to use a computer system uninvited.
Such as using someone's password to get
into their computer without them
allowing you to
'Unauthorised Access' with intentions to commit further
crime (such as fraud) is taken as an even more serious
Logging in as someone else, using an account
account for something is an offence
'Unauthorised Modification' is also illegal. This is where you
change data without permission or deliberately infecting a
computer with a virus.
Deleting files, changing files
Making, supplying or gaining material that could be used in
computer misuse offences
Implications of a hacker gaining access to business-owned computers:
Businesses will lose income if the hackers shut down their e-commerce system
(electronically buying or selling products via online services/the Internet.
Loss of reputation for businesses as people are unconvinced
that their system is secure.
A risk of virus or malware infection that
may be undetected but could send
information to the criminal/hacker.
A cost to update and improve security to prevent further
Data Protection Act
Aims to protect anyone who has
personal information stored on a
The person that oversees companies who wish to store their
customers' personal information.
Organisation that stores data on an individual by registering
with the information commissioner
The Data Subject is the person whose
data is being stored, and they must give
consent for their data to be stored.
They then have many rights
They are allowed to see any information held on them
They may have to pay a fee for this
They may ask to change data if they are not sure it is correct
They can claim conpensation if their rights are broken
They can prevent automated decision making
However, the Data Subject cannot see
information held on them if it is involved n
national security or a police investigation.
Storing data no longer than necessary
Measures of protection, e.g passwords, encryption
(encoding a message so that only authorised users can
storing only relevant information
ensuring the data is accurate and up to
Using data honestly, for a purpose agreed with the user.
Not sending data to outside countries without
first ensuring that it is secure and can be kept
safe by legislation (laws) in that country.
The Data Processor does not own the data,
but will use the data on behalf of the Data
Controller, following the same rules and
The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
Protects the creative work of individuals or businesses
They own 'copyright' so they can determine what to
do with it, whether that is selling it, or simply being
credited for their work.
They protect the original creators by
making it a crime for anyone to
download, use and share the
copyright work without first paying,
or sometimes just asking for
Software piracy, by illegal download or illegal distribution.
Use of software without the relevant license.
Theft of intellectual property, e.g. designs for 3D printers or
text and written work
Using or downloading images without permission of the
The illegal download of videos and audio files
The Communications Act 2003
It covers various different
protecting against certain issues
Offensive and indecent images
Sending such images of others is
another offence covered by the Act, and deliberately sharing
images with such content on social media can be an offence
under the Act.
Threatening behaviour online
'Trolling' is when you post comments to
deliberately cause distress, and the
Communications Act tries to prevent such
threats happening. However, the law needs to
be updated due to the fact that online trolls can
cause offence wihout threat.
When you use someone else's
Internet connection of Wifi without their
consent or without intention to pay.
Why do hackers hack?
To steal or modify information
Disrupt business, pure mischief or a challenge
Steal money, personal gain
Make a point - political reasons, get revenge on people with opposing views