Anatomy and Physiology

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The study of the human body
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Question Answer
1. The two bones located on either side of the head and above the ears, are called the: a. skull b. frontal c. temporal d. flat bones C. temporal
2. How much does the average human brain weigh? a. between 20 and 25 ounces b. between 32 and 38 ounces c. between 44 and 48 ounces d. between 75 and 82 ounces D. between 75 and 82 ounces
3. The hyoid bone located in the throat is sometimes referred to as: a. spine b. ribs c. thorax d. Adam's apple D. Adam's apple
4. A spongy bone between the eyes that forms part of the nasal cavity is called the: a. frontal b. ethmoid c. occipital d. temporal B. Ethmoid
5. About how many muscles are in the body? a. 50 b. 100 c. 300 d. 500 D. 500
6. The muscle of the heart is called the: a. cardiac b. striated c. voluntary d. non-striated A. Cardiac
7. Which system regulates and controls the growth reproduction and health of the body? a. nervous system b. endocrine system c. circulatory system d. reproductive system B. Endocrine system
8. What controls all three subsystems of the nervous system? a. heart b. occipital c. brain d. spinal cord C. Brain
9. Which hand muscle separates the fingers? a. flexor b. opponens c. aducter d. abductor D. Abductor
10. What is the main nerve branch consisting of the top of the face? a. facial b. maxilary c. mandibular d. ophthalmic D. Ophthalmic
11. Which two glands make up the integumentary system? a. duct and sebaceous b. ductless and sudoriferous c. duct and ductless d. sebaceous and sudoriferous D. Sebaceous and sudoriferous
12. Which mouth muscle is located between the jaw and cheek and is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly as in blowing? a. platysma b. canninus c. buccinator d. zygomaticus C. Buccinator
13. The system that breaks food down to be easily absorbed by cells or to become waste products is the: a. digestive system b. nervous system c. excretory system d. respiratory system A. Digestive system
14. Which two muscles in the neck and upper back draw the head back, rotate the shoulder blades and control the swinging of the arm? a. platysma and risorius b. temporalis and masseter c. platysma and sternocleido mastoideus d. trapezius and latissimus dorsi D. Trapezius and latissimus dorsi
15. Most of the cell's activities take place in the: a. nucleus b. cytoplasm c. protoplasm d. cell membrane B. Cytoplasm
16. What is the study of bone called? a. anatomy b. physiology c. histology d. osteology D. Osteology
17. Which body system sends and receives body messages? a. muscular b. nervous c. circulatory d. endocrine B. Nervous
18. Which organ converts and neutralizes ammonia from the circulatory system to urea? a. heart b. brain c. liver d. skin C. Liver
19. What types of nerves are found in the arm and hand? a. cranial nerves b. mixed nerves c. motor nerves only d. sensory nerves only B. Mixed nerves
20. What is the function of white blood cells? a. they carry oxygen b. help clot blood c. fight bacteria d. regulate the heart C. Fight bacteria
21. Which artery supplies the lower portion of the face, including the mouth and nose? a. occipital b. posterior auricular c. superficial temporal d. external maxillary D. External maxillary
22. The peripheral nervous system is composed of: a. the pons b. the brain c. medulla oblongata d. sensory and motor nerves D. Sensory and motor nerves
23. The muscle that is located under the arm and helps in lifting the arm and in breathing is the: a. bicep b. extensor c. deltoid d. serratus anterior D. Serratus anterior
24. The physical foundation of the body is the: a. skeletal system b. nervous system c. muscular system d. reproductive system A. skeletal system
25. The muscle that circles the mouth is responsible for contracting, puckering or wrinkling the lips is the: a. buccinator b. zygomaticus c. oris orbicularis d. quadratus labii superioris C. Oris orbicularis
26. The mandibular nerve branch extends to the muscles of the chin and the: a. neck b. cheek c. lower lip d. top of the head C. lower lip
27. Which of the following statements is NOT a function of the skeletal system? a. allowing body movement b. protecting the internal organs c. supporting the body by giving it shape and strength d. helps circulate blood throughout the body D. Helps circulate blood throughout the body
28. Which crucial part of the central nervous system is composed of long nerve fibers and originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine? a. pons b. spinal cord c. dendrite system d. medulla oblongata B. Spinal cord
29. What is the function of the excretory system? a. allow procreation of a living organism b. break food down to be absorbed by the body c. allow the body to intake oxygen d. eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waste products D. Eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waste products
30. Which muscle is located between the eyebrows, controls the eyebrows, drawing them in and downward? a. procerus b. non-striated c. mentalis d. corrugator D. corrugator
31. Which phase of metabolism involves breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones? a. digestion b. anabolism c. catabolism d. metablism C. Catabolism
32. Groups of cells of the same kind make up: a. tissues b. lungs c. systems d. organs A. Tissues
33. The study of structures too small to be seen without using a microscope is called: a. physiology b. biology c. gross anatomy d. microscopic anatomy D. Microscopic anatomy
34. What is the name of the point where two or more bones are joined together? a. joint b. cranium c. temporal d. osteology A. Joint
35. The occipital muscle is located at the nape of the neck and draws the scalp: a. back b. forward c. to the left d. to the right A. Back
36. Muscles produce movement through tightening and: a. massaging b. contracting c. relaxing d. dilating C. Relaxing
37. If you draw your hand back from touching a hot stove, what is this interaction between sensory and motor nerves called? a. reflex action b. sensory action c. receptor action d. trifacial action A. Reflex action
38. The fluid part of the blood, also known as plasma, is what percentage of water? a. 40 b. 55 c. 75 d. 90 D. 90
39. The cervical vertabrae are the seven bones that form the top part of the: a. chest b. arm c. wrist d. spinal column D. Spinal column
40. Which nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles? a. motor b. sensory c. reflex d. trifacial A. Motor
41. Neurology is the study of the: a. nervous system b. respiratory system c. digestive system d. endocrine system A. Nervous system
42. Which system involves the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries? a. respiratory b. cardiovascular c. digestive d. muscular B. Cardiovascular
43. The fourteen bones that form the digits or fingers are called: a. ulna b. carpals c. phalanges d. metacarpals C. phalanges
44. The upper chambers of the heart include the: a. left and right atrium b. left ventricle c. right ventricle d. extensor A. left and right atrium
45. All of the following bones help make up the chest EXCEPT: a. ribs b. sternum c. mandible d. thoracic vertabrae C. mandible
46. The two types of muscle tissues- striated and: a. voluntary b. non-striated c. cardiac d. dilator B. non-striated
47. All of the following are muscle areas a salon professional is primarily concerned with EXCEPT for the: a. neck b. arms c. face d. back D. Back
48. Which of the following facial bones is NOT involved in facial massage? a. nasal b. lacrimal c. vomer d. maxillae C. vomer
49. The eight small bones held together by ligaments to for the wrist are called: a. ribs b. phalanges c. carpals d. metacarpals C. carpals
50. What is the name of the largest bone of the facial skeleton and consists of the lower jaw? a. nasal b. maxillae c. mandible d. cranium C. mandible
51. What are the basic units of living matter? a. cells b. kidneys c. bones d. tissues A. cells
52. The cone-shaped,, muscular organ located in the chest cavity is the: a. heart b. artery c. atrium d. capillary A. heart
53. Which of the following is NOT a mouth muscle? a. caninus b. mentalis c. trapezius d. oris orbicularis C. trapezius
54. These types of vessels take nutrients and oxygen from the arteries to the cells: a. capillaries b. veins c. varicose veins d. ventricles A. capillaries
55. The orbicularis oculi closes the eyelid and circles around the: a. nose b. mouth c. eyebrow d. eyesocket D. eyesocket
56. The muscles that are located in the palm of the hand and cause the thumb to move toward the fingers to make a fist are called: a. extensor b.abductor c. adductor d. opponens D. opponens
57. The brain, spinal cord and spinal and cranial nerves all compose which nervous system? a. central b. peripheral c. autonomic d. lymph-vascular A. central
58. What is the study of the structure, function and dieases of the muscles? a. anatomy b. histology c. myology d. osteology C. myology
59. The non-moving portion of the muscle attached to bones or other fixed muscles is the: a. origin b. belly c. insertion d. cardiac A. origin
60. The bone located on the little finger side of the lower arm is the: a. ulna b. radius c. thorax d. cervical vertabrae A. ulna
61. The sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishment and oxygen to the body parts is: a. blood b. plasma c. platelets d. nutrients A. blood
62. The nervous system is divided into how many subsystems? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 B. 3
63. During which process does the body store water, food and oxygen for times when they are needed by the body? a. anabolism b. catabolism c. circulation d. digestion A. anabolism
64. The muscle between the brows across the bridge of the nose that draws the brows down is the: a. mentalis b. procerus c. corrugator d. orbicularis oculi B. procerus
65. What part of the muscle applies to the midsection of the muscle, between the two attached sections? a. origin b. belly c. insertion d. cardiac B. Belly
66. The body system that controls the body's breathing is the: a. skeletal system b. circulatory c. respiratory system d. integumentary system C. respiratory
67. Which of the following descriptions is NOT a function of the muscular system? a. support for the skeleton b. contouring of the body c. circulating lymph throughout the body d. production of body movements C. circulating lymph throughout the body
68. Which of the following is a problem salon professionals can develop from long periods of standing? a. varicose veins b. tendonitis c. diabetes d. heart condition A. varicose veins
69. Which arteries supply blood to the head, face and neck? a. submental b. common carotid c. external carotid d. internal carotid B. common carotid
70. Which of the following is NOT a primary component of the nervous system? a. brain b. muscles c. nerves d. spinal cord B. muscles
71. The two sup-systems of the circulatory system are the lymph-vascular system and the: a. cardiac system b. lymph system c. cardiovascular system d. pericardium system C. cardiovascular system
72. How may groups are the bones of the skull divided into? a. two b. three c. four d. five A. two
73. What is another name for red blood cells? a. plasma b. leukocytes c. hemoglobin d. erythrocytes D. erythroytes
74. what part of the cell is known as the control center? a. cytoplasm b. protoplasm c. nucleus d. cell membrane C. nucleus
75. The entire process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart is called: a. vein circulation b. local circulation c. arterial circulation d. general circulation D. general circulation
76. The intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide by the body are functions of the: a. digestive system b. respiratory system c. endocrine system d. reproductive system B. respiratory system
77. Which two bones join to form the bridge of the nose? a. nasal b. maxillae c. skull d. zygomatic A. nasal
78. Which of the following is NOT a primary type of tissue? a. nerve tissue b. liquid tissue c. epithelial tissue d. skeletal tissue D. skeletal tissue
79. Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the: a. belly attachment b. origin attachment c. voluntary attachment d. involuntary attachment B. origin attachment
80. The humerus extends from the elbow to the: a. wrist b. shoulder c. top of the neck d. fingertips B. shoulder
81. This body system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body is the: a. circulatory b. muscular c. endocrine d. lymph-vascular D. Lymph-vascular
82. what does hemoglobin do? a. reacts with oxygen to create red blood cells b. repels oxygen c. attracts oxygen d. changes oxygen into carbon dioxide C. attracts oxygen
83. The seventh cranial nerve is also known as the: a. facial nerve b. trifacial nerve c. sensory nerve d. fifth cranial nerve A. facial nerve
84. The extensor, which is located mid-forearm on the outside of the arm, performs which action? a. lifts the arm b. turns the palm of the hand c. straightens the fingers and wrists d. swings the arms back and forth C. straightens the fingers and wrists
85. What is the large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to where it joins with the clavicle? a. ribs b. scapula c. carpals d. cervical vertabrae B. scapula
86. The long and short thread-like fibers that differentiate nerve cells from other cells are called: a. axons b. neurons c. dendrites d. receptors A. axons
87. Hair growth, skin conditions and energy levels are all controlled by the: a. digestive system b. excretory system c. endocrine system d. circulatory system C. endocrine system
88. Which triangle-shaped muscle covers the shoulder, lifts or turns the arm? a. bicep b. deltoid c. tricep d. pectoralis B. deltoid
89. The study of the organs and systems of the body is called: a. anatomy b. physiology c. cosmetology d. biology A. anatomy
90. An adult human has how much blood circulating throughout the body? a. 4 to 6 pints b. 4 to 6 quarts c. 8 to 10 pints d. 8 to 10 quarts C. 8 to 10 pints
91. What gets released by the salivary glands to help break down food? a. peptide b. enzymes c. pharynx d. salivary glands B. enzymes
92. Which type of tissue supports, protects and holds the body together? a. nerve tissue b. epithelial tissue c. connective tissue d. muscular tissue C. connective tissue
93. What is the name of the skeleton of the head that encloses and protects the brain? a. parietal b. skull c. cranium d. manible B. skull
94. The tissue type that carries food, waste products and hormones is: a. liquid tissue b. connective tissue c. nerve tissue d. muscular tissue A. liquid tissue
95. The chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction is known as: a. anabolism b. physiology c. metabolism d. catabolism C. metabolism
96. Which type of muscle responds automatically to control various body functions? a. striated b. voluntary c. non-striated d. cardiac C. non-striated
97. Which of the following is NOT a facial nerve branch? a. buccal b. temporal c. mandibular d. medulla oblongata D. medulla oblongata
98. Which structures of the nerve cells receive the messages sent by the nerve terminals? a. pons b. axons c. dendrites d. receptors C. dendrites
99. Which scalp muscle extends from the forehead to the top of the skull, and raises the eyebrows? a. belly b. striated c. frontalis d. epicranium C. frontalis
100. The lower chambers of the heart include the: a. left atrium b. right atrium c. left and right ventricle d. flexor C. left and right ventricle
101. A group of body structures an/or organs that, together, perform vital functions for the body is referred to as a(n): a. tissue b. organ c. system d. cell system
102. What is another name for histology? a. gross anatomy b. microscopic anatomy c. osteology d. physiology B. microscopic anatomy
103. Which part of the brain is responsible for mental activity? a. pons b. cerebrum c. cerebellum d. spinal cord B. cerebrum
104. The colorless liquid produced as a byproduct when plasma passes, nourishment to capillaries and cells is known as: a. lymph b. protein c. blood d. blood platelets A. lymph
105. Which of the following structures is NOT an organ? a. brain b. heart c. eyes d. feet D. feet
106. How many times per minute does the normal heart beat? a. 30-40 b. 60-80 c. 130-140 d. 160-180 b. 60-80
107. Which blood cells are responsible for the clotting of blood? a. leukocytes b. thrombocytes c. erythrocytes d. plasma B. thrombocytes
108. Which of the following methods is NOT used to stimulate muscles? a. massage b. moist heat c. electric current d. sleep D. sleep
109. The study of the functions of the organs and systems of the body is known as: a. anatomy b. physiology c. biology d. gross anatomy B. physiology
110. The mixed nerve that is responsible for transmitting facial sensations to the brain and is the largest of the cranial nerves is called the: a. facial nerve b. trifacial nerve c. motor nerve d. seventh cranial B. trifacial nerve
111. The muscle located at the corner of the mouth and draws the mouth up and out as in grinning is called the: a. risorius b. mentalis c. triangularis d. platysma A. risorius
112. The part of the brain that controls and coordinates muscle movements is the: a. pons b. cerbrum c. cerebellum d. spinal cord C. cerebellum
113. What is the body's largest organ and forms a protective layer over the body? a. lungs b. liver c. intestines d. skin D. skin
114. Which nervous system is responsible for all involuntary body functions? a. central b. peripheral c. trifacial d. autonomic D. autonomic
115. Which of the following is true of arteries? a. they contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow b. they have thicker walls than veins c. they carry oxygen-poor blood d. they are thin, small vessels B. they have thicker walls than veins
116. The three basic parts of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm and: a. tissue b. protoplasm c. organs d. cell membrane D. cell membrane
117. Which organ of the respiratory system expands and contracts automatically to force air into and out of the lungs? a. liver b. kidneys c. diaphragm d. esophagus C. diaphragm
118. Which muscle is of primary interest if a salon professional is performing a scalp massage? a. cardiac b. epicranium c. origin d. corrugator B. epicranium
119. The two bones of the upper jaw are called: a. frontal b. sphenoid c. maxillae d. sternum C. maxillae
120. Bone is the hardest structure in the body and is composed of 1/3 organic matter and: a. 2/3 mineral matter b. 2/3 hydrogen c. 2/3 oxygen d. 2/3 nitrogen A. 2/3 mineral matter
121. Which mastication muscle is located above and in front of the ear and opens and closes the jaw? a. masseter b. buccinator c. temporalis d. latissimus dorsi C. temporalis
122. The phase of metabolism that releases energy within the cell, necessary for performing body functions, is anabolism. true or false False
123. The excretory system helps break food down into simpler chemical compounds to be absorbed by cells. true or false False
124. Myology is the study of the structure, function and diseases of the heart. true or false False
125. The nucleus is the control center of the cell's activities. true or false True
126. The muscles of primary interest to the salon professional are the scalp and shoulder muscles. true or false False
127. A major function of the muscular system is to produce body movements. true or false True
128. One of the main functions of the skeletal system is to provide a frame to which muscles can attach. true or false True
129. The primary functions of the respiratory system are the intake of oxygen and the exhalation of hydrogen. true or false False
130. Abductor muscles separate the fingers while adductor muscles draw them together. true or false True
131. The endocrine system controls the growth and general health and reproduction of the body. true or false True
132. Osteology is the study of nerve tissue. true or false False
133. Cells with common properties or functions combine to form the various tissues of the body. true or false True
134. Sensory nerves carry messages to the brain and spinal cord based on our senses of smell, sight, touch, hearing and taste. true or false True
135. Separate body structures that perform specific functions an are composed of two or more different tissues are called systems. true or false False
136. Plasma is about 10% water. true or false False
137. Groups of cells of the same kind make up organs. true or false False
138. Plasma is the fluid that circulates through the body to bring nourishment and oxygen to all body parts. true or false False
139. Physiology is the study of organs and systems of the body. true or false False
140. The type of tissue that covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs is liquid tissue. true or false false
141. The central nervous system is responsible for all involuntary body action. true or false False
142. The circulatory system sends and receives body messages. true or false False
143. The lymph-vascular is responsible for the circulation of blood, including the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries true or false False
144. Striated muscles respond to commands regulated by will. true or false True
145. The stomach and intestines are both considered to be organs. true or false True
146. The heart contracts and relaxes to force blood to move through the circulatory system. true or false True
147. The part of the muscle that is joined to movable attachments is the belly. true or false False
148. Connective tissue contracts, when stimulated, to produce motion. true or false False
149. The liver removes toxic byproducts from the body. true or false True
150. What is the lower jaw called? a. maxillae b. mandible c. nasal d. lacrimal B. mandible
151. What is the center of a cell called? a. tissue b. cell membrane c. nucleus d. cytoplasm C. nucleus
152. What is the muscle that circles the mouth, contracts the lips? a. mentalis b. caninus c. quadratus labii inferioris d. oris orbicularis D. oris orbicularis
153. What is the muscle that is joined to the bones, skin or other movable muscle? a. belly b. sternum c. origin d. insertion D. insertion
154. What is the muscle that is located on the back of the head? a. frontalis b. occipitalis c. insertion d. mentalis B. occipitalis
155. Which muscle depresses the lower jaw and lip and extends from the chin to the chest? a. platysma b. masseter c. buccinator d. trapezius A. platysma
156. What muscle controls the closing of the eyelids? a. orbicularis oculi b. procerus c. buccinator d. mentalis A. orbicularis oculi
157. The bone that forms the back of the head is called the: a. sphenoid b. temporal c. ethmoid d. occipital D. occipital
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