The nature of memory: STM, LTM & Duration

megan langdon
Mind Map by megan langdon, updated more than 1 year ago
megan langdon
Created by megan langdon about 5 years ago
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As level Mind Map on Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory concerning their duration.

Resource summary

The nature of memory: STM, LTM & Duration
1 Duration
1.1 STM
1.1.1 Doesn't last very long
1.1.2 Example
1.1.2.1 Remembering 7 digit phone no
1.1.2.1.1 Maintained in STM via repetition
1.1.2.1.1.1 Fades when convo starts
1.1.3 Rehearsal
1.1.3.1 Repetition to keep re-presenting to STM
1.1.3.2 Keeps memory active
1.1.3.3 Result of verbal rehearsal
1.1.3.3.1 STM held in STM store and eventually become LT
1.1.4 Lloyd & Margaret Peterson (1959)
1.1.4.1 Landmark study of duration of STM
1.1.4.2 24 Students attending uni
1.1.4.3 Experimenter says consonant syllable
1.1.4.3.1 Followed by 3-digit no (e.g. WRT 303)
1.1.4.3.2 Selected to have no meaning
1.1.4.3.2.1 'BBC' meaningful
1.1.4.3.3 Immediately after hearing syllable & no
1.1.4.3.3.1 Count backwards in 3s /4s until told to stop
1.1.4.3.3.1.1 Interference to stop rehearsal
1.1.4.3.3.2 After - ppts recall nonsense syllable
1.1.4.3.3.2.1 Each ppt given 2 practice trials
1.1.4.3.3.2.1.1 Each trial, retention interval (time spent counting backwards) different - 3, 6, 9, 12, 15,& 18 secs
1.1.4.4 Ppts remembered about 90% - 3 sec interval
1.1.4.4.1 2% remembered - 18 sec interval
1.1.4.4.2 When rehearsal prevented STM lasts about 20 mins at most
1.2 LTM
1.2.1 2 hours to 100 years
1.2.1.1 Anything that isn't short term
1.2.1.1.1 Some are long lasting
1.2.2 Shepard (1967)
1.2.2.1 Showed ppts 612 memorable pics, one at a time
1.2.2.1.1 Hour later
1.2.2.1.1.1 Shown some of these pics among others
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Almost perfect recognition
1.2.2.1.2 4 months later
1.2.2.1.2.1 Still able to recognise 50% of pics
1.2.3 Bahrick et al (1975)
1.2.3.1 Ask people of various ages
1.2.3.1.1 Put names to faces from high school year book
1.2.3.1.1.1 48 years later
1.2.3.1.1.1.1 75% Accuracy
2 Evaluation
2.1 Duration of STM may be shorter
2.1.1 Peterson & Peterson
2.1.1.1 Findings been challenged
2.1.1.1.1 Argue
2.1.1.1.1.1 Ppts relying on more than STM alone
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Knew they were going to recall items after interval
2.1.2 Other research (e.g. Marsh et al)
2.1.2.1 Suggested - ppts do not expect to be tested after this interval
2.1.2.1.1 Forgetting may occur after just 2 secs
2.1.2.2 Suggests - our understanding of duration of STM may not be as clear-cut as once thought
2.2 Not quite so STM
2.2.1 More recent research
2.2.1.1 Suggests - duration of STM
2.2.1.1.1 Not as short as Peterson & Peterson study suggests
2.2.1.2 Naime et al (1999)
2.2.1.2.1 Found - items could be recalled after as long as 96 secs
2.2.1.2.1.1 Seems, that info remains in STM
2.2.1.2.1.1.1 Quite a while unless other material replaces / overwrites it
2.2.1.2.2 Ppts asked to recall same items actross trials
2.2.1.2.2.1 Other studies, different items used on each trials
2.2.1.2.2.1.1 Led to interference between items, decreasing recall
2.3 Validity
2.3.1 Criticism of Peterson & Peterson
2.3.1.1 Psychologists only studying 1 kind of memory
2.3.1.1.1 For syllables & words
2.3.1.1.2 Much of time our memories concerned w/ other things
2.3.1.1.2.1 E.g what happened last night, what my children look like
2.3.1.1.2.2 Times when remembering words
2.3.1.1.2.2.1 E.g. Ordering drinks, remembering someones phone no
2.3.1.2 Another critism
2.3.1.2.1 Peterson & Peterson not actually testing duration
2.3.1.2.1.1 When Ppts counting backwards
2.3.1.2.1.1.1 Nonsense syllable could've been displaced in STM
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 By nos, wiping out memory for syllables
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