HBS108 (Topic 8.4 Statistical inference and hypothesis testing: Conf) Mind Map on Topic 8.4 Statistical Inference,
Statistical Significance and Hypothesis
Testing, created by shirley.ha on 09/15/2013.
Topic 8.4 Statistical Inference,
Statistical Significance and
Hypothesis Testing
1 LO
1.1 The basic concepts of statistical inference and hypothesis testing,
where we analyze the sample data to examine a relationship between
variables and make inferences about the population.
1.1.1 Chi-Square (X2), confidence intervals (CI) and p-values
1.2 The issue of causation that assists
us to interpret the results from a
research studies.
2 Stat Inference
2.1 Makes use of information from a sample to draw
conclusions (inferences) about the population from
which the sample was taken.
2.2 Applies this process to datasets
with calculated degrees of
uncertainty
2.2.1 established that there is H1 or is not H0
association between the variables
2.2.1.1 interested in (independent and dependent), we
have to test this association to find out if this is
a statistically significant association.
2.3 Whole purpose of research
2.3.1 use data from a sample to make
inferences about the whole population
from which the sample was drawn
because we are usually unable to
conduct our research on the whole
population.
2.3.1.1 the results from our analysis of
this sample data, true (or
statistically significant) for the
whole population?”
3 Stat sign
3.1 specific meaning in research
statistics and it come in two
varieties:
3.2 1. Statistical significance:
3.2.1 when the p-value is small enough
to reject the null hypothesis of no
effect
3.3 2. Clinical importance:
3.3.1 when the effect size is large enough to
be potentially considered worthwhile by
patients.
4 Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
4.1 tentative theory, supposition (also known
as the “hypothesis” quantitative
researchers state at the beginning of the
research process)
4.2 provisionally adopted to guide the
practical steps we will use to
conduct the research study.
4.3 hypothesis is statistically tested and
potentially refuted in the
analysis/interpretation step
4.4 we never state the hypothesis as an
affirmative statement
4.4.1 always stated in the negative and is called the Null Hypothesis
4.5 If statistically proven, H1 states there IS a relationship
between the IV and the DV
5 Null Hypothesis
5.1 typically proposes a general or default
position, such as that “there is no
relationship between two variables”
5.2 1. typically proposes a general or default
position, such as that “there is no relationship
between two variables”
5.3 2. That “there is no difference
between the exposed and
unexposed group” (i.e. in a cohort
study)
5.4 3. That “there is no difference
between the cases and control groups”
(i.e. in a case control study).
6 H0 states there is NO relationship between the IV and the DV