P-values, Generalisability, Study Limits

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

HBS108 (Topic 8.4 Statistical inference and hypothesis testing: Conf) Mind Map on P-values, Generalisability, Study Limits, created by shirley.ha on 09/16/2013.

Created by shirley.ha about 6 years ago
Casuality aka causation & association
Measures of central tendency
Topic 7: Quantitative Research - Sampling, Data Collection & Measurement
OCR Chemistry - Atoms, Bonds and Groups (Definitions)
Exchange surfaces and breathing
Topic 8.4 Statistical Inference, Statistical Significance and Hypothesis Testing
Null hypoth, chi-squares, p-values, CI
P-values e.g
P-values, Generalisability, Study Limits
1 Summary
1.1 tests of significance
1.1.1 allow the researchers to formally test their null hypothesis and to demonstrate the strength of that evidence in any publication.
1.1.2 In many cases, a research finding is not always accepted from one published article based on a single study.
1.2 many other researchers will retest the null hypothesis
1.2.1 using perhaps stronger or more powerful studies in order to improve the level of evidence until there are a number of published articles from various types of studies before clinicians will change their practices and adopt the findings from the published research. This
1.3 important that researchers published fully transparent results from their research.
1.3.1 Subsequent researchers will re-test the null hypothesis using the earlier studies to improve their own research into the same health problem.
2 Generalisability
2.1 is the extent to which research findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population can be applied to the population at large.
2.1.1 The first step to check generalisability is to ensure that the result was statistically significant
2.2 aka The first step to check generalisability is to ensure that the result was statistically significant
2.3 Study validity
2.3.1 the degree to which an inference from a scientific study is warranted,
2.3.2 taking into the account the strengths and weaknesses of the study design.
2.4 Internal validity
2.4.1 the degree to which observations taken during the study may be attributed solely to the hypothesized effect that is being studied
2.5 External validity
2.5.1 is the extent to which the finding of a study can be generalised from the results from the sample being studied, to the population from which the sample was taken.
3 Important note
3.1 The results of any study may not be generalisable to all patients outside the study setting
3.1.1 example, when researchers conduct an RCT, they usually address the question of whether a treatment can work (efficacy) but may not tell us about whether the treatment will be effective when offered to the broad range of patients seen in day-to-day clinical practice.
4 Study Limitations
4.1 The researchers should always point out the shortcomings of the study, especially those that affect the conclusions drawn
4.1.1 then "defend" the results and conclusions drawn in light of these limitations. You need to assess whether or not these limitations damage the overall nature of study findings? limitations might relate to the overall study design, the response rate, the characteristics of the sample etc. The limitations might affect the degree to which the results can really be generalised to the target populations from which the study sample was drawn.

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