1.1.1 They were a terrorist
group that fought for the
separation of Ireland from
1.1.2 What were their Actions and Methonds?
126.96.36.199 Main methods included shooting and
188.8.131.52 They also kidnapped
and took hostages.
184.108.40.206 They forced the hostages to be
220.127.116.11 They also robbed
banks to raise funds.
1.1.3 What were their strengths?
18.104.22.168 Culture and propaganda - they used
examples of British injustice against Irish
22.214.171.124 Prisoners - by 2980, they
had hundreds of prisoners
126.96.36.199 International support - They
linked themselves with the PLO
188.8.131.52 Effective leadership - Martin
McGuinness and Gerry Adams
1.2.1 Gerry Adams: Adams has statedrepeatedly
that he has never been a member of the
Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).
However, Adams has been named as part
of the IRA leadership since the 1970s
1.2.2 Martin McGuinness: McGuinness has acknowledged that
he is a former IRA member but claims that he left the
IRA in 1974. Is now part of the Provisional IRA
1.3 Birmingham Pub Bombings
1.3.1 Bombs exploded in two
central Birmingham pubs –
the "Mulberry Bush" and
the "Tavern in the Town"
1.3.2 Six minutes after the
warning, at 20:17, the bomb
exploded inside a duffel
bag, devastating the pub.
1.3.3 At 21:15, a third bomb was found
in a bag outside a bank on Hagley
Road, about two miles away. The
detonator went off when a
policeman prodded the bag, but the
bomb failed to explode.
2 The PLO
2.1 Who were they?
2.1.1 Their aim was to claim land and fought Zionists,
who wanted to re-claim the land
2.1.2 What were their Actions and Methods?
184.108.40.206 They attacked Israel with artillery and fire.
220.127.116.11 They attacked civilian target
using typical underground
18.104.22.168 They hijacked planes to free PLO prisoners
22.214.171.124 They created BlackSeptember to carry out
attacks that the official PLO could not deny.
2.1.3 What were their strengths?
126.96.36.199 They had a clever and Charismatic
leader, Yasser Arafat
188.8.131.52 They had a secure base in lebanon
184.108.40.206 They had a powerful base of
support - they had a large
population of Palestinian
refugees in Lebanon
220.127.116.11 They raised money from
2.2.1 Yasser Arafat: chairman of the Palestine Liberation
Organisation from 1969 until his death in 2004, a tumultuous
period in which clashes with neighbouring Israel were prevalent.
3.1.1 Who was
3.1.2 The targets:
18.104.22.168 Washington DC
22.214.171.124 Twin Towers (New York)
126.96.36.199 The Pentagon
3.1.3 Reason for attacks:
188.8.131.52 For the attacks on
muslims in Somalia
184.108.40.206 Indian oppression in
220.127.116.11 For supporting Russia in Chechnya
3.2 Who were they?
3.2.1 They were an organisation that
claimed to defend against their
3.3 What were their Actions and Methods?
3.3.1 They had a hardcore militant organisation
3.3.2 They had a network with other groups sharing it's views
providing finance, training and support to carry out attacks.
3.3.3 They had a rallying point for modern militant Islam providing inspiration
3.4 What were their strengths?
3.4.1 They had a clear,
powerful set of
3.4.2 They were a difficult
movement to combat as
they didn't want land
3.4.3 They were a movement
extremely aware of the potential