BIOLOGY B1 2

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BIOLOGY AQA

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Question Answer
Why do we need a nervous system? Your nervous system uses electrical impulses to enable you to react quickly to your surroundings and coordinate what you do
What is a receptor? A cell that detects stimuli (changes in the environment). Like all other animal cells, light receptor cells and other receptors have a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane.
How does your nervous system work? Impulses from receptors pass along sensory neurons to the brain or spinal chord (CNS). Impulses are sent along other motor neurons from the brain (CNS) to the effector organs like your muscles.
What does CNS stand for? Central Nervous System
What is a reflex action? A response to a stimuli that is automatic and rapid
Why are reflexes so important? Reflex actions run every-day bodily functions like blinking and they help you avoid danger.
What are synapses? Synapses are the junctions between joints
What is the menstrual cycle? The menstrual cycle is a monthly cycle in which a woman’s uterus prepares for a fertilised egg to settle and grow into a baby. It is usually about 28 days long, the lining of the womb thickens and an egg starts maturing.
What is ovulation? After 14 days of the menstrual cycle, an egg is released.
How is the menstrual cycle controlled? The menstrual cycle is controlled by the woman's ovaries and hormones made in the pituitary gland
What is oestrogen? A female sex hormone created and secreted in the ovaries. It slows down the production of FSH
What is FSH? Follicle Stimulating Hormone, stimulates the ovaries to mature an egg and create oestrogen
What is LH? Luteinising Hormone is encouraged by oestrogen to be created by the pituitary gland and helps to encourage the release of the mature egg.
What is progesterone? Another hormone involved in the menstrual cycle
What is an oral contraceptive? The contraceptive pill used to prevent pregnancy
How can hormones be used to stop pregnancy? The contraceptive pill uses female hormones, particularly oestrogen, to inhibit the production of FSH so no eggs mature in the ovaries.
How can hormones be used to treat infertility? Extra FSH can be given to a woman to help eggs mature in her ovaries
What is IVF? In vitro fertilisation
How does IVF work? -Fertility drugs are used to make loads of eggs mature at the same time for collection - Eggs are then collected and put in a petri dish -A sample of semen is mixed with the eggs -The eggs are checked to make sure they are fertilised properly and the embryos are developing -One or two of the tiny embryos are then put back in the womb to grow into a baby
What is homeostasis? The balancing act that keeps everything in your internal environment working in order
What do your kidneys control? They help control the balance of water and mineral ions in your body, creates urine
What is the ideal body temperature? 35-37 degrees Celsius
What does the pancreas do to the concentration of glucose in your blood? Keeps it constant so that your body cells are provided with the constant supply of energy they need
What stimuli do plants respond to? Light, moisture and gravity
What is the response of a plant to light known as? Phototropism
What is the response of a plant to gravity called? Geotropism or Gravitropism
What plant hormone controls the plant responses to stimuli? Auxin, the unequal distribution causes the response