Weimar Republic - Problems facing it from 1918 - 1923


Mind Map on Weimar Republic - Problems facing it from 1918 - 1923, created by failingunicorn on 05/03/2015.
Mind Map by failingunicorn, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by failingunicorn about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Weimar Republic - Problems facing it from 1918 - 1923
  1. Spartacist Uprising - January 1919
    1. Leaders = Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht - Killed after being captured
      1. Wanted Germany to be ruled by workers' councils or soviets
        1. 6/1/1919 - Spartacists stormed Berlin and took over the Government's telecommunication centre and the government's newspaper offices. Unfortunately for them, other left-wing parties did not support them, leaving them isolated.
          1. 10/1/1919 - Government called in the 'Freikorps' (non-governmental right-wing group of ex-soliders)
          2. MUnich (or Beer Hall) Putsch - November 1923
            1. 8/11/1923 - Hitler hijacked a local government meeting in Munich and announced he was taking government of Bavaria (was meant to be followed by a march on Berlin) - was joined by the old war hero, Ludendorff
              1. Hitler was accompanied by the SA and gave a speech to the crowd, talking about how Stresemann's government was unfit to lead after the failed responses to the invasion and occupation of the Ruhr. Got Kahr (Bavarian PM) and others to pledge their support under pressure by Hitler but they soon went back on this promise.
              2. 9/11/1919 - Hitler and thousands of Nazis marched to the centre of Munich. They were soon surrounded by the army and police. There was a tense stand-off which was broken by shots. 16 Nazis were killed (Those that died were later celebrated as Nazi Martyrs to the cause later on).
                1. Hitler escaped, but was later arrested and tried along with oher Nazis involved with the Putsch, tried for high treason. Hitler used the trail to publlizcise the Nazi cause. Judge and jury were linetent to his right-wing speech as many had worked under the rule of the Kaiser.
                2. Treaty Of Versailles - June 1919
                  1. Reperations
                    1. Pay £6,600 million as a result of war damage.
                      1. The Saar was to be run by the French for 15 years. Free coal to France, Belgium and Italy - caused a shortage of goods in Germany
                      2. League of Nations
                        1. War Guilt - Article 231 - stated Germany and her allies were responsible for the war and damage caused
                          1. Disarmament
                            1. Army reduced to 100,00 men
                              1. Navy reduced to only small ships and no submarines.
                                1. No military air force
                                  1. No German forces where allowed to the west of the Rhine river (Rhineland) in order to protect France, whilst the area was occupied 15 years
                                  2. League of Nations
                                    1. Germany was not initially permitted to join. Was an intergovernmental organisation set up between WW1 and WW2 to prevent war and settle international disputes. Replaced by United Nations.
                                    2. Loss of Territory
                                      1. Euepen and Malmedy to BELGIUM. Alsace-Lorraine to FRANCE. North Schleswig to DENMARK. Upper Silesia to POLAND. Also lost ALL OVERSEAS territory.
                                        1. West Prussia to POLAND - also detached East Prussia from Germany.
                                          1. Danzig became a free port under the League of Nations control.
                                            1. Austria wanted to join Germany but was not allowed to and became a separate Austrian state.
                                              1. TOTAL LOSS = 13% IRON PRODUCTION = 48% AGRICULTURAL LAND = 15% POPULATION = 6 MILLION
                                            2. Kapp Putsch - May 1920
                                              1. 13/3/1920 - The 5,000 Friekorps marched on Berlin, seized power and declared a new government
                                                1. The Allies began to put pressure on the German Government to disband the Freikorps, the Freikorps reacted by joining other right wing groups. When the government tried to disband them the Freikorps revolted and marched on Berlin.
                                                  1. The government fled to Dresden and called on the people of Berlin to strike, meaning that there was no water, electricity, iron, food etc,. The putsch also had no support from senior officers, left-wing parties and civil servants mostly refused to acknowledged this new government. After 4 days Kapp fled and the putsch failed. No leaders were put on trial.
                                                    1. Leaders: Wolfgang Kapp and General Luttwitz
                                                    2. Invasion and Occupation of the Ruhr/Hyperinflation - 1923
                                                      1. Allies were becoming concerned that Germany was struggling with its reparation payments - key part of ToV and German Gov. had already defaulted on some payments
                                                        1. Consequence = French + Belgian troops marched on Germany's main industrial area in January 1923. Argued that if Germany couldn't pay in money, then must pay in coal, steel and manufactured goods.
                                                          1. Occupation was legal but many Germans were angry with this outcome. German Gov. asked Ruhr inhabitants to protest with a policy of PASSIVE RESISTANCE. French + Belgians stayed and with German gov. refusing to use military force = stalemate.
                                                        2. The occupation of the Ruhr caused the collapse of the German economy and fall in value of currency (Mark). Suffered HYPER INFLATION - made worse by German Gov. printing money to pay striking workers from Ruhr with. (printing money meant that they were circulating money they didn't have
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