B6 d-h

singu006
Mind Map by singu006, updated more than 1 year ago
singu006
Created by singu006 almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on B6 d-h, created by singu006 on 03/09/2015.
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B6 d-h
1 d
1.1 Biomass can provide energy by burning fast growing trees.
1.2 Biomass can provide energy via fermentation.
1.3 Biofuels are alternatives to fossil fuels, which do not produce particulates or add to greenhouse gas levels.
1.4 Biogas contains mainly methane, some carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide.
1.5 Biogas containing more than 50% methane is burnable, but below 10% methane it is explosive.
1.6 Biogas is a ‘cleaner’ fuel than petrol and diesel but contains less energy than natural gas.
1.7 Biogas can be used to provide electricity, hot water and steam for heating or to fuel cars.
1.8 Gasahol is a mixture of petrol and alcohol used in cars in countries like Brazil.
2 e
2.1 Loam is a soil with a mixture of sand and clay.
2.2 Humus is mostly decomposed dead material in soil.
2.3 When humus decomposes it releases minerals into the soil, and aerates the soil.
2.4 Most life in soil needs a supply of air and water.
2.5 Earthworms bury organic material, which is decomposed by bacteria and fungi.
2.6 Earthworms aerate and drain soil with their burrows.
2.7 Earthworms mix up layers of soil.
2.8 Earthworms neutralise acidic soil.
2.9 Charles Darwin recognised the importance of earthworms in agriculture.
3 f
3.1 There are four major advantages of living in water:  No shortage of water/risk of dehydration.  Less temperature variation.  Support of the body.  Easy to dispose of waste.
3.2 There are two disadvantages to living in water: Regulating water content and resistance to movement.
3.3 Light, temperature and mineral content of water all vary with seasons and depth of the water.
3.4 Some food chains in oceans start with bacteria, not plants, and some rely on ‘marine snow’
3.5 Phytoplankton are microscopic plants.
3.6 Zooplankton are microscopic animals.
3.7 Sewage and fertiliser run off can cause eutrophication
3.8 Biological indicators are species which are only able to survive in particular levels of oxygen or at particular pHs.
4 g
4.1 Biological washing powders contain carbohydrases to digest carbohydrate stains, proteases to digest protein stains, and lipases to digest fatty stains.
4.2 Biological washing powders work best at about 40ºC.
4.3 Sucrose sugar can be broken down by the enzyme sucrose into the smaller, sweeter, sugars glucose and galactose.
4.4 Using sweeter sugars than sucrose, means less sugar has to be added to foods.
4.5 Immobilising enzymes means fixing them into an insoluble material so they are easier to handle and use.
4.6 Immobilised enzymes do not contaminate the substance they are added to.
4.7 Immobilised enzymes can be used in a continuous process
4.8 Lactose intolerant people do not produce the enzyme lactase, so are unable to digest lactose sugar from milk.
4.9 Bacteria in the gut of lactose intolerant people ferment the lactose, causing wind and diarrhoea
5 h
5.1 New organisms produced by genetic engineering are called transgenic
5.2 Genes do the produce the same proteins, no matter which organism they are put in to.
5.3 Restriction enzymes cut DNA to leave ‘sticky ends’.
5.4 Ligase enzymes are used to stick other genes to the ‘sticky ends’ of cut DNA.
5.5 Bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce human insulin for diabetics
5.6 Transgenic organisms can be cloned to produce identical copies, and large quantities of the useful product
5.7 Bacteria contain loops of DNA called plasmids.
5.8 Assaying techniques are techniques used to identify if the new gene has been successfully transferred.
5.9 Assaying techniques are techniques used to identify if the new gene has been successfully transferred.
5.10 Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate pieces of DNA.
5.11 Radioactive probes are used to show up the DNA during DNA ‘fingerprinting’.
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