Electoral Systems

orlarosebrake
Mind Map by orlarosebrake, updated more than 1 year ago
orlarosebrake
Created by orlarosebrake about 5 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Electoral Systems, created by orlarosebrake on 03/10/2015.

Resource summary

Electoral Systems
1 Mixed System
1.1 Additional Member System
1.1.1 -A proportion of seats are elected using F-P-t-P in single seat constituencies.
1.1.1.1 A smaller number of representatives, 'additional members' are elected in multi-seat constituencies.
1.1.1.1.1 Electors cast two votes: one for their favoured candidate and one for their favourite party
1.1.1.1.1.1 List seats are allocated on a corrective basis to ensure that the number of seats for parties is proportional to the number of votes they won
1.1.2 Disadvantages
1.1.2.1 Advantages
2 Plurality System
2.1 First-Past-the-Post
2.1.1 First-Past-the-Past is a simple plurality system which means that the winner doesn't need an absolute majority to win but one more vote than their closest rival.
2.1.1.1 Electors cast a single vote by placing an ('X') on the ballot paper next to the name of their favoured candidate.
2.1.1.1.1 MP's are elected in single-seat constituencies- each of the 650 constituencies in the UK elect one representative to the House of Commons.
2.1.2 Advantages
2.1.2.1 Disadvantages
2.1.2.2 Simplicity: F-P-t-P is easy to understand, one vote, cross in a box; Voters are familiar with this system.
2.1.2.2.1 Clear Outcome: Usually provide a clear winner. (No coalitions)
2.1.2.2.1.1 Strong and Stable Government: Typically produces a one-party government.
3 Proportional System
3.1 Single Transferrable Vote
3.1.1 Representatives are elected in large multi-seat constituencies.
3.1.1.1 Voting is preferential- electors indicate their preferences by writing '1' and '2' etc. beside the name of their favourite candidates. (Voters can vote for as many or as few candidates as they like.)
3.1.1.1.1 A candidate must achieve a quota (droop quota) to be elected- any votes that exceed the quota are redistributed on the basis of second preferences.
3.1.1.1.1.1 If no candidate reaches the quota on the first count, the lowest-placed candidate is eliminated and their second preferences are transferred
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Eliminations and redistributions continue until the number of seats are filled by candidates who meet the quota.
3.1.2 Advantages
3.1.2.1 Proportional Outcome: Ensures that votes are of largely equal value.
3.1.2.1.1 Almost Majority: Only a group of parties that wins more than 50% of the popular vote can form a government.
3.1.2.1.1.1 Choice: Voters can choose between a large range of candidates, including different candidates from the same party.
3.1.2.2 Disadvantages
3.1.2.2.1 Accuracy: The system is less accurate in translating votes into seats than list systems or some versions of AMS.
3.1.2.2.1.1 Multi-seat Constituencies: Large multi-seat constituencies weaken the link between individual MPs and their constituency.
3.2 Closed Regional List
4 Majoritarian Systems
4.1 Supplementary Vote
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