Origins of the French Revolution

aaliyahoshodi
Mind Map by aaliyahoshodi, updated more than 1 year ago
aaliyahoshodi
Created by aaliyahoshodi about 6 years ago
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AQA AS Level mindmap on the Origins of the French Revolution.

Resource summary

Origins of the French Revolution
1 Long Term Factors
1.1 Taxation System
1.1.1 The taille and vintigeme were only paid by the third estate.
1.1.2 Tax was collected by tax farming in which only quotas had to be met, meaning that the money collected from taxes could'nt cover France's expenditure.
1.1.3 Venal officials bought their positon meaning corrupt officials couldn't be removed.
1.2 French society
1.2.1 First Estate
1.2.1.1 Unpopular due to; plurality and absenteeism (bishops having more than one diocese), tithes (making the church the single largest land owner in France, with 10 per cent of land), tax exemption (with an income of around 100 million livre), power over people (causing resistance to new ideas).
1.2.2 Second Estate
1.2.2.1 Unpopular due to privledge; tried in special courts, exempt from military service, the gabelle and corvee.
1.2.3 Third Estate
1.2.3.1 Bourgeosie had no political rule under absolutism and the burden of taxation largely fell on the Third Estate.
1.2.4 (Estates of Realm)
1.3 Enlightenement
1.3.1 Voltaire
1.3.1.1 Felt the power of the church needed to be limited as highlighted in On Toleration
1.3.2 Rousseau
1.3.2.1 Argued in the 'Social Contract' that legitimate government should be based upon popular sovereignty.
1.3.3 Montesquieu
1.3.3.1 Wanted the separation of legislative and executive power with checks and balances. De L'Espirit de Lois.
1.3.4 These thinkers rejected hierarchical government and religious superstition, which was key to the Ancien regime.
2 Short Term Factors
2.1 Foreign Policy
2.1.1 Seven Year War lost in 1763, Guadelope and Martinque countries with sugar lost.
2.1.2 The American War of Independence- (1776-1783), 1066 million livre spent, in the short term worsening the already weak financial situation of the crown.
2.1.2.1 Ideas such as liberty and democracy spread.
2.2 Financial Crisis
2.2.1 On 20th August 1786- nearing bankruptcy, 112 million livre deficit in 1786.
2.2.2 Increased in 1788 to 126 million livre, anticipated that for 1780, interest payments of the deficit would amount to 62 per cent of receipts.
2.2.3 Attempts at Reform
2.2.3.1 1. Turgot encouraged free circulation of grain, resulting in the Flour War.
2.2.3.2 2. Introduced a General Land Tax, to be paid by all, his proposals were largely referred to as the Six Edicts. These were however opposed by the rival minsters and the PP and he was fired.
2.2.3.3 3. Necker helped facilitate loans with the 1781, Compte Rendu, showing a surplus of revenue as he didn’t mention the 200 million livre being spent on warfare, this had long term effects.
2.2.3.4 4. Calonne raised over 400 million livres initially however loans dried up in 1786, he proposed General Land tax and an abolition of temporary taxes such as the vingtieme.
2.2.3.5 5. The Paris Parlement refused to register the new loans, due to the Compte Rendu's false picture of French Finances. Then call the Assembly of Notables who refuse.
2.2.3.6 6. Calonne is fired. Brienne waterer down Calonnes reforms, putting forward his new ideas to the Paris Parlement.
2.2.3.7 7. They refused and Louis exiled them in August 1787, however as the financial situation came dire he needed to bring them back.
2.2.3.8 8. Louis passed the reforms by a lit de justice, causing the Revolt of the Notables and the Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom.
2.2.3.8.1 Revolt of Notables
2.2.3.8.1.1 ST: Actions by Brienne and Calonne to introduce the General Land Tax largely affected the first two Estates, with the nobility claiming that such a large change must be put forward to the Estates General.
2.2.3.8.1.2 LT- Philosphe ideas, King was acting tyrannically in trying to force through change, felt the May Edicts were an example of ministerial despotism, therefor the parlement were acting to the will of the people.
2.2.3.8.1.3 ST- Unpopularity and apparent weakness of Calonne, Brienne and King, meant that even those who agreed with fair taxation were suspicious of how it would be carried out, furthermore the fact the King kept changing his mind firing minsters did not help the situation.
2.3 Economic Crisis
2.3.1 The economy was largely based on agriculture, therefore the bad harvests in 1778-9, 1781-2,1785-6 had a large impact.
2.3.2 In 1788-9 bread was 88 % of a labourer's wage.
2.3.3 Textile production fell by 50% in 1789, largely affecting women in rural areas .
2.3.4 Ordinary people accused land-owners and tithe-owners of grain hoarding.
2.3.5 Politicisation of the Third Estate came out of the economic crisis.
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