The atom, the Nucleus and Radioactivity

Mind Map by ainearrigan, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ainearrigan almost 5 years ago


Leaving certificate Science Mind Map on The atom, the Nucleus and Radioactivity, created by ainearrigan on 03/16/2015.

Resource summary

The atom, the Nucleus and Radioactivity
1 The atom
1.1 The plum pudding model
1.1.1 Rutherfords expt. he believed the model and expected the alpha particles to go through the gold foil results - atoms are composed mainly of empty space have an extremely positive centre thought that there was an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus
1.1.2 the arrangement of electrons Neils Bohr - believed electrons existed in 'energy levels' this was proofed by the emission spectrum types of spectra Continuous produced by a liquid or solid a continuous spectrum is emitted unable to detect the element stic a line spectrum is produced by gaseous matter, it is charateristic Emission spectrum every element gives out its own unique emission spectrum LASERS- Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Produce an intense beam of light, the electrons recive energy and go to the same energy level and then emit the same wavelength photon used to treat eye problems used for telecommunication in optical fibers used in welding and cutting used in target designation E2-E1=hxf E2-E1 (difference in energy levels) h= planks constant f=frequency c= f x ^ Bohrs theory
2 Radioactivity
2.1 Henri Becquerel discovered that a crystal of uranium was emitting some kind of light. Marie Curie later went on to research more and name this occurance as radiation.
2.2 natural radiation - the spontaneous decay of a nucleus, with the emission of some form of radiation
2.3 artificial radioactivity- radioactivity from atoms caused b nuclear bombardment
2.4 The activity of the radioactive nucleus
2.4.1 the number of nuclei of a radioactive sample decaying per second= activity (A) / Becquerel (Bq)
2.5 The law of radioactive decay
2.5.1 no. of nuclei decaying at that moment is proportional to the no. undecayed @ that instant RATE OF DECAY= ^ x N N- the no. of undecayed atoms ^ - decay constant each isotope has its own decay constant the rate decreases as time goes on Half- life (T 1/2) - the time taken for half of the undecayed atoms in an sample of the element to decay
3 Detecting nuclear radiation and uses
3.1 Geiger-Muller tube or solid state detector
3.1.1 - radiation passes through the window of the tube and ionises the gas - the e- are accelerated towards the anode causing more ionization -this induces a small current which measures the pulse time for each ionizing particle -it cant tell the type of radiation
3.2 medical - cancer treatment
3.3 carbon dating (c-14)
3.4 used in fertilisers
3.5 preservation of spices in food
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