Surgery & Anatomy

Jam Jar
Mind Map by Jam Jar, updated more than 1 year ago
Jam Jar
Created by Jam Jar almost 5 years ago


Medicine Through Time: Surgery & Anatomy. Sources: & AQA Medicine Through Time Revision Book

Resource summary

Surgery & Anatomy
1 Prehistoric
1.1 Trephining
1.1.1 Cut a Hole into skull to release Bad Spirits
1.1.2 Skulls show evidence that wound healed
1.1.3 Influenced by religion
1.2 Cave paintings
1.2.1 show animals being speared through the heart which shows an understanding that the heart is an important organ.
1.3 Natural
1.3.1 Used Splints to stabilise broken bones This would make them heal naturally
1.3.2 Amputations which some patients survived
1.3.3 Set broken bones with mud
2 Egyptain
2.1 Mummification
2.1.1 Removal of organs Religious Influence: To preserve the body for the after life
2.2 Channel Theory
2.2.1 Heart connected throughout the body Vai Channels
2.3 Papyrus Scrolls
2.4 Limitations
2.4.1 Embalmers (mummification-ers) were not doctors Passed on little knowledge about the internal organs. Internal organs were preserved in separate jars, so they were not dissected.
2.4.2 Religion limitation: Human Dissections not allowed; whole body required for the after life
2.5 Operations
2.5.1 Removal of Tumors
2.5.2 Bandages & kept them clean
2.5.3 Bronze Tools
2.5.4 Cataracts removal
2.5.5 Willow leaves to bind wounds Natural Antiseptic (Unknown to them)
2.5.6 Only External Operations
3 Greek
3.1 Operations
3.1.1 Only External Operations Cataracts + Tumor removal
3.1.2 Hippocrates 4 humors Black Bile Blood Phlegm Yellow Bile
3.1.3 Blood Letting Scientific or Psychological?
3.2 Dissections allowed
3.3 Erasistratus
3.3.1 Discovered the heart contained 4 one way valves
3.4 Herophilus
3.4.1 Discovered that the Brain controls the body
4 Roman
4.1 Galen
4.1.1 Wrongly Claimed... There are holes in the heart Lived makes blood from food The Jaw is made from 2 bones Brain has blood vessels on the under surface
4.2 Church forbayed dissections
4.3 Light Anestetics
4.3.1 Opium
5 Middle Ages
5.1 Many roman records burnt & destroyed
6 Renaissance
7 19th Century
8 20th Century
9 Modern
10 Islam
10.1 Cauterised wounds with hot iron
10.2 Abulcasis
10.2.1 Wrote Books Do not operate while the pains cause is unknown
10.3 Dentists
10.3.1 False teeth
10.4 Cataracts & Tumor Removal
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