End of chapter review: Models Of Memory

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End of chapter review: Models Of Memory
1 Duration
1.1 LTM unlimited
1.2 STM measured in seconds
1.2.1 Lloyd and Margaret Peterson(1959) Findings participants remembered; about 90% at 3 second interval participants remembered only 2% at the 18 second interval suggests STM lasts about 20 seconds at most landmark study enlisted the help of 24 students attending their university consonant syllable followed by a three digit number(e.g. TZA 193) Immediately after hearing the syllable and number participants were asked to count backwards from this number in 3's or 4's until told to stop 2 practice trials 8 actual trials. In each trial the retention interval was different:3,6,9,12,15,18 (seconds)
1.3 refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
2 Capacity
2.1 LTM unlimited
2.2 STM less than 7 chunks
2.3 George Miller(1956
2.3.1 magic number 7 +/- 2
2.3.2 reviewed psychological research concluded that the span of immediate memory is 7 people can cope reasonably well with counting 7 dots flashed onto a screen but not many more than this same applies for musical notes,digits,letters and words
2.3.3 Chunk things together which enables us to remember more Simon(1974) size of chunk matters larger chunks=shorter memory span(8-word phrases)
2.4 Evaluation
2.4.1 Cowan(2001) STM is likely to be limited to approximately 4 chunks suggests STM may not be as extensive as was first thought supported by Vogel et al. (2001) looked at capacity of STM for visual information rather than verbal stimuli and also found 4 items to be roughly the limit
2.5 refers to how much information can be held in memory
3 Encoding
3.1 STM-Acoustic/visual
3.1.1 acoustic=coding information in terms of the way it sounds
3.2 LTM-Semantic(meaning)
3.2.1 semantic= coding information by its representative meaning
3.3 the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory
3.4 Baddeley(1966a&1966b)
3.4.1 tested effects of both acoustic and semantic similarity on short-term & long-term recall
3.4.2 gave participants a list of words which were either acoustically similar or dissimilar and words that were semantically similar or dissimilar findings participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM Semantically similar words posed little problem for short-term recall but led to muddled long-term memories
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