Evolution and Biodiversity, Classification of biodiversity

Gabby Sluce
Mind Map by Gabby Sluce, updated more than 1 year ago
Gabby Sluce
Created by Gabby Sluce about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Evolution and Biodiversity, Classification of biodiversity, created by Gabby Sluce on 03/28/2015.

Resource summary

Evolution and Biodiversity
1 Classification of Biodiversity
1.1 The binomial system of names for species is universal amoung biologists and had been argreed and delevloped
1.2 When species are discovered they are given a scientific name using the binomial system
1.2.1 Taxonomists classify species using a hirarchy of taxa
1.2.1.1 Domain, Kingdom, Phyum, Class, Orders, Family, Genus, Species
1.2.1.2 The domain for species is either Archaeans, Bacteria and Eukaryota
1.2.1.2.1 Human: Eukaryota. Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primate. Hominidae. Homo. Sapiens
1.2.1.2.2 Pine trees. Plantae, Pinophyta. Pinospioda. Pinales. Pinaeae. Pinus. Pinus
1.2.1.3 The genus and accompanying higher taxa consists of all the species that have evolved from one common ancestral species
1.3 Taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species when new evidence shows that a previous taxon contains species that have evolved from a different ancestral species
1.3.1 Natural classification help in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species with a group
2 Cladistics
2.1 A clade is a group of organisms that have evolved from a common ancestor
2.1.1 Evidence for which species are part of a clade can be obtained from a base sequence of a gene or a corresponding amino acid sequence of a protein
2.1.2 Cladograms are tree diagrams that show the most probable sequence of divergence in clades
2.2 There is a positive correlation between the number of differences between two species and the time since they diverged from a common ancestor
2.3 Traits can be Analogous or Homologous
2.3.1 Analogous structures are similar because of convergent evolution
2.3.2 Homologous structures are similar because of similar ancestry
2.4 Evidence from cladistics has shown that classification of some groups based on structure did not correspond with the evolutionary origins of a group or species
3 Natural selection
3.1 Natural selection can only occur if there is a variation among members of the same species
3.2 Mutations, meiosis and sexual reproduction cause variation between individuals in a species
3.2.1 Mutations is the original point of variation. As new alleles cause mutations
3.2.2 Every cell produced by meiosis has a different combination of alleles. By crossing over
3.2.3 The fusion of male and female gametes create a single combination of alles
3.3 Adaptations of characteristics that make an individual suited to it's environment and way of life
3.3.1 Species tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support
3.3.1.1 Individuals that reproduce pass on characteristics to their offspring
3.3.2 Those better adapted to the environment tend to survive and produce more offspring
3.3.2.1 Those less adapted to the environment tend to not survive and not produce as much offspring
3.4 Natural selcetion increases the amount of characteristics that make an individual better adapted and decrease the amount of other characteristics leading to a change within the species
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