B1, 2 & 3

Fergus Longley
Mind Map by Fergus Longley, updated more than 1 year ago
Fergus Longley
Created by Fergus Longley almost 5 years ago
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All topics for B1 2 and 3
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B1, 2 & 3
1 B1 Genes
1.1 What genes do
1.1.1 Proteins

Annotations:

  • Genes carry the instructions for the body to develop and function. They do this by coding for proteins
  • Two groups: - Functional proteins enable the body to function, e.g. enzymes, antibodies and hormones - Structural proteins give the body structure, rigidity and strength, e.g. collagen and keratin
1.1.2 DNA

Annotations:

  • Each gene is a section of a molecule called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  • DNA is made up of 4 bases, as well as phosphate groups and sugar molecules
  • The order of bases determine the order of amino acids in a protein
1.1.3 Chromosomes

Annotations:

  • Chromosomes are lengths of DNA found in the nuclei of cells.
1.1.4 Genome

Annotations:

  • A complete set of genes is reffered to as a genome
1.1.5 Twins

Annotations:

  • Identical twins have identical genotypes because they develop after a fertilized egg splits into two.
1.1.6 Genotype and phenotype

Annotations:

  • Phenotype are the observable physical features of a person, whereas genotype will be defined by the genetic makeup (written as two letters e.g. DD)
1.2 Genes and Variation
1.2.1 Chromosomes and Genes

Annotations:

  • Chromosomes are arranged in pairs. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sex cells only have 23 chromosomes.
  • At fertilisation, the egg and sperm join to create a zygote, with 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent).
1.2.2 Alleles

Annotations:

  • Alleles are the different forms in which the genes controlling a characteristic occur, e.g. one for freckles and one without.
  • If two alleles of the same gene are identical the person is said to be homozygous, rather than heterozygous.
1.3 Genetic Crosses
1.3.1 Genetic Traits

Annotations:

  • Traits are passed on from parents to their offspring through genes on chromosomes. In most cases, alleles for a trait can be dominant or recessive.
1.3.2 Genetic Diagrams

Annotations:

  • You can use punnet squares to show genetic crosses and find the probability of offspring having traits.
1.3.3 Sex Determination

Annotations:

  • One pair of chromosomes determine out sex - the 23rd pair. A female has XX and a male has XY. Eggs and sperm has 23 chromosomes (not pairs).
1.4 Gene disorders, carriers and testing
1.4.1 Disorders
1.4.2 Testing
1.5 Cloning and stem cells
1.5.1 Cloning
1.5.2 Stem Cells
2 B2
2.1 Microbes and disease
2.1.1 How
2.1.2 Defence
2.2 Vaccination
2.2.1 Programmes
2.2.2 Safety
2.2.3 Other methods
2.3 Protection
2.3.1 Antimicrobials
2.3.2 Trials
2.4 The heart
2.4.1 Circulatory system
2.4.2 CHD
2.5 Cardiovascular fitness
2.5.1 Rate and Pressure
2.5.2 Epidemiological
2.6 Constants
2.6.1 Internal environment
2.6.2 Water balance
2.6.3 Kidneys
3 B3
3.1 Species adaptation, changes, chains of life
3.1.1 Species and adaptation
3.1.2 Extinction
3.1.3 Energy transfer
3.2 Nutrient cycles, environmental indicators
3.2.1 The carbon cycle
3.2.2 The nitrogen cycle
3.2.3 Indicators
3.3 Variation and selection
3.3.1 Life on earth
3.3.2 Variation and evolution
3.3.3 Variation and natural selection
3.4 Evolution, fossils and DNA
3.4.1 Natural selection and evolution
3.4.2 Evidence
3.5 Biodiversity and sustainability
3.5.1 Conservation
3.5.2 Sustainability
3.5.3 Improving sustainability
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