THREE MOMENTS OF ENGLISH (OLD , MIDDLE AND MODERN)

Description

The selection of events is my own, and the dates are approximate in some cases, but it gives at least some idea of the time-scales involved, and puts the developments into some sort of perspective.
Mayte Paredes
Mind Map by Mayte Paredes, updated more than 1 year ago
Mayte Paredes
Created by Mayte Paredes over 2 years ago
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Resource summary

THREE MOMENTS OF ENGLISH (OLD , MIDDLE AND MODERN)
  1. OLD ENGLISH ( c.500 - c.1100)
    1. c.500 BC
      1. Celts inhabit much of Europe, and beginning to colonize the British Isles.
        1. 55 BC
          1. First Roman raids on Britain under Julius Caesar
            1. 43 AD
              1. Roman occupation of Britain under Emperor Claudius (beginning of Roman rule of Britain)
                1. 410-436
                  1. Roman withdrawal from Britain
                    1. c.450
                      1. 450-480
                        1. 597
                          1. c.600
                            1. c.660
                              1. 731
                                1. 792
                                  1. c.800
                                    1. Old English epic poem “Beowulf” composed
                                      1. 865
                                        1. The Danes launch full-scale invasion and occupy Northumbria
                                          1. 871
                                            1. Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex, encourages English prose and translation of Latin works
                                              1. 871
                                                1. “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle” is begun
                                                  1. 878
                                                    1. Danelaw established, dividing Britain into Anglo-Saxon south and Danish north
                                                      1. 911
                                                        1. Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger (the beginning of Norman French)
                                                          1. c.1000
                                                            1. The oldest surviving manuscript of “Beowulf” dates from this period
                                                              1. 1066
                                                                1. The Norman conquest under William the Conqueror
                                                                  1. 1086
                                                                    1. “Domesday Book” compiled
                                                                      1. c.1100
                                                                        1. London becomes de facto capital of England
                                                      2. Viking raids of Britain begin
                                                      3. The Venerable Bede writes “The Ecclesiastical History of the English People” (in Latin)
                                                      4. “Cædmon's Hymn” composed in Old English
                                                      5. Anglo-Saxon language covers most of modern-day England
                                                      6. St. Augustine arrives in Britain (beginning of Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxons)
                                                      7. Earliest Old English inscriptions
                                                      8. Anglo-Saxon settlement (Angles, Frisians, Saxons, Jutes) of Britain begins
                                              2. MODERN ENGLISH( c.1500 - c.1800)
                                                1. 1526
                                                  1. William Tyndale prints his English translation of the New Testament of “The Bible”
                                                    1. 1539
                                                      1. “The Great Bible” published
                                                        1. 1549
                                                          1. First version of “The Book of Common Prayer” published
                                                            1. c.1590
                                                              1. William Shakespeare writes his first plays
                                                                1. 1604
                                                                  1. Robert Cawdrey publishes the first English dictionary, “A Table Alphabeticall”
                                                                    1. 1607
                                                                      1. Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World, established
                                                                        1. 1611
                                                                          1. The Authorized, or King James Version, of “The Bible” is published
                                                                            1. 1616
                                                                              1. Death of William Shakespeare
                                                                                1. 1622
                                                                                  1. Publication of the first English-language newspaper, the “Courante” or “Weekly News”
                                                                                    1. 1623
                                                                                      1. First Folio of Shakespeare’s works is published
                                                                                        1. 1702
                                                                                          1. Publication of the first daily English-language newspaper, “The Daily Courant”, in London
                                                                                            1. 1755
                                                                                              1. Samuel Johnson publishes his “Dictionary of the English Language”
                                                                                                1. 1763
                                                                                                  1. Britain wrests control of Canada from the French
                                                                                                    1. 1777
                                                                                                      1. Last native speaker of the Celtic Cornish language dies
                                                                                                        1. 1782
                                                                                                          1. George Washington defeats Cornwallis at Yorktown and Britain abandons its American colonies
                                                                                                            1. 1788
                                                                                                              1. British penal colony established in Australia
                                                                                                                1. 1788
                                                                                                                  1. First publication of “The Times” newspaper in London
                                                                                                                    1. 1788
                                                                                                                      1. Noah Webster publishes “The American Spelling Book”
                                                                                                                        1. 1795
                                                                                                                          1. First English settlement at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
                                                                                    2. MIDDLE ENGLISH ( c.1100 - c.1500)
                                                                                      1. c.1150
                                                                                        1. The oldest surviving manuscripts in Middle English date from this period
                                                                                          1. 1154
                                                                                            1. Eleanor of Aquitaine, French wife of Henry II, becomes Queen Consort of England
                                                                                              1. 1154
                                                                                                1. “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle” discontinued
                                                                                                  1. 1167
                                                                                                    1. Oxford University established
                                                                                                      1. c.1180
                                                                                                        1. The “Ormulum” text of the monk Orm completed
                                                                                                          1. 1204
                                                                                                            1. King John loses the province of Normandy to France
                                                                                                              1. 1209
                                                                                                                1. Cambridge University established
                                                                                                                  1. 1349-50
                                                                                                                    1. The Black Death kills one third of the British population
                                                                                                                      1. 1362
                                                                                                                        1. The Statute of Pleading replaces French with English as the language of law (although records continue to be kept in Latin)
                                                                                                                          1. 1362
                                                                                                                            1. English is used in English Parliament for the first time
                                                                                                                              1. c.1370
                                                                                                                                1. William Langland writes “Piers Plowman”
                                                                                                                                  1. 1384
                                                                                                                                    1. John Wycliffe publishes his English translation of “The Bible”
                                                                                                                                      1. 1385
                                                                                                                                        1. English replaces Latin as main language in schools (except Universities of Oxford and Cambridge)
                                                                                                                                          1. c.1388
                                                                                                                                            1. Chaucer begins “The Canterbury Tales”
                                                                                                                                              1. 1399
                                                                                                                                                1. Henry IV becomes first English-speaking monarch since before the Conquest
                                                                                                                                                  1. c.1450
                                                                                                                                                    1. The Great Vowel Shift begins
                                                                                                                                                      1. 1476
                                                                                                                                                        1. William Caxton establishes the first English printing press
                                                                                                                                                          1. c.1500
                                                                                                                                                            1. Start of English Renaissance
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