Hovland-Yale model

Madeleine Hall
Mind Map by Madeleine Hall, updated more than 1 year ago


A-Level Psychology (media) Mind Map on Hovland-Yale model, created by Madeleine Hall on 04/09/2015.
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Hovland-Yale model
1 Who
1.1 attractiveness + expertise are important in persuasion
1.1.1 Petty + Cacipoppo - attractive communicators were far more effective attractive rock starts often become public speakers for political issues and adverts Bono, Cheryl Cole Hume - celeb endorsements had minimal impact Johnny Vega + Monkey meant to advertise ITV digital - it failed
1.2 experts are more persuasive
1.3 popular and attractive are more popular with audience
2 what
2.1 message is more effective if audience do not know it is persuasive
2.2 message that causes fear is quite influential
2.2.1 Putwain + Symes - when students given message about exams including fear of not knowing everything was more effective than a message just making students anxious High anxiety was linked to a reduction in test performance
2.3 Gender difference?
2.3.1 Eagly + Carli - gender difference - females are easier to persuade than men
2.3.2 Sistrunk + McDavid - females only easier to persuade because material was masculine. if material was neutral, there would be no difference
2.3.3 Karabenic - males infulence by female information, vice versa, depends on the information, the more familiar you are with it, the harder you are to persuade
3 Whom
3.1 the audience
3.1.1 low intelligence audiences are easier to persuade, often do not understand information Loftus - younger children easier to persuade, makes younger children less reliable as witnesses as they can easily be persuaded by misleading info Martin - older children knew advert was meant to be persuasive + were less influenced by them, but younger children did not understand info so were more influenced
3.1.2 high intelligence audiences - hard to persuade - confident in their own views present both sides of the argument + let audience make up mind
4.1 early research on army personnel and students - cannot be generalized
4.2 research relied on self- report, not actual behaviour - may lack ecological validity
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