Tests For Chemicals

Noah Swanson
Mind Map by Noah Swanson, updated more than 1 year ago
Noah Swanson
Created by Noah Swanson almost 5 years ago
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The chemical tests for substances - IGCSE Chemisty.

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Tests For Chemicals
1 Gases
1.1 Chlorine
1.1.1 Bleaches damp litmus paper (Turns white)
1.2 Oxygen
1.2.1 Relights a glowing splint
1.3 Carbon Dioxide
1.3.1 Turns lime water milky white
1.4 Hydrogen
1.4.1 Burns with a 'squeaky' pop
1.5 Ammonia
1.5.1 Turns damp RED litmus paper blue
2 Water
2.1 White Anhydrous Copper(II) Sulphate Powder
2.1.1 Turns blue in presence of water
2.1.2 BUT does not show if it is pure or not
2.2 Pure water has specific physical properties that can be tested
2.2.1 Boiling point:
2.2.1.1 100ºC
2.2.2 Melting point:
2.2.2.1 0ºC
3 Cations
3.1 Flame Tests For Metal Ions
3.1.1 Li+ Lithium:
3.1.1.1 Red Flame
3.1.2 Na+ Sodium:
3.1.2.1 Yellow Orange Flame
3.1.3 K+ Potassium:
3.1.3.1 Lilac Flame
3.1.4 Ca2+ Calcium:
3.1.4.1 Orange/Brick-Red Flame
3.2 NaOH Precipitates
3.2.1 Copper(II) Cu2+
3.2.1.1 Blue
3.2.2 Iron(II) Fe2+
3.2.2.1 Sludgy Green
3.2.3 Iron(III) Fe3+
3.2.3.1 Reddish Brown
3.2.4 Many Metal Hydroxides form precipitates when added to Sodium Hydroxide as they are insoluble. The precipitate may have a distinctive colour
3.3 Ammonium Compounds
3.3.1 Add NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide)
3.3.1.1 Test For Ammonia
3.3.1.1.1 Damp litmus paper bleeches
4 Anions
4.1 Carbonates
4.1.1 Add HCl to sample
4.1.1.1 If Carbonate ions present CO2 will be given off
4.1.1.1.1 This can be tested in lime water
4.2 Sulphates
4.2.1 Add HCL to remove impurities
4.2.1.1 Then Add Barium Chloride
4.2.1.1.1 If Sulphate present a white precipitate will form
4.3 Halides
4.3.1 Iodide = Yellow
4.3.2 Bromide = Cream
4.3.3 Add Nitric Acid to the sample to remove impurities
4.3.3.1 Then add Silver Nitrate Solution
4.3.3.1.1 See colour of precipitate
4.3.4 Chloride = White
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