Acids, Bases and Salts

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Acids, Bases and Salts for A Level OCR Chemistry
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Acids, Bases and Salts
1 Acids
1.1 Acid: Proton donor that release H+ ions in aqueous solutions.
1.2 Common Acids
1.2.1 Hydrochloric Acid: HCl
1.2.2 Nitric Acid: HNO3
1.2.3 Sulfuric Acid: H2SO4
2 Bases
2.1 Base: Proton acceptor that readily accepts H+ ions from an acid.
2.2 Common Bases
2.2.1 Metal Oxides
2.2.2 Metal Hydroxides
2.2.3 Ammonia
2.3 Alkalis
2.3.1 Alkali: Soluble base that release OH- ions in aqueous solutions.
2.3.2 Common Alkalis
2.3.2.1 Sodium Hydroxide: NaOH
2.3.2.2 Ammonia: NH3
2.3.2.3 Potassium Hydroxide: KOH
3 Salts
3.1 Salt: Compound produced when the H+ ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or the ammonium ion.
3.2 Common Reactions
3.2.1 Acid+Base==Salt+H20
3.2.2 Acid+Alkali==Salt+H20
3.2.3 Acid+Carbonate==Salt+H20+C02
4 Water of Crystallisation
4.1 Anhydrous: Contains no water molecules.
4.2 Hydrated: Contains water molecules.
4.3 Water of Crystallisation: Water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound.
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