AQA Psychology - Ethical Issues

beccajanewoolley
Mind Map by beccajanewoolley, updated more than 1 year ago
beccajanewoolley
Created by beccajanewoolley almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on AQA Psychology - Ethical Issues, created by beccajanewoolley on 04/12/2015.

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AQA Psychology - Ethical Issues
1 Deception
1.1 Viewed as unethical because it can lead to participants taking part in something they don't want to do.
1.1.1 Can lead to people being reluctant to take part in psychological studies because psychologists are untrustworthy
1.1.2 Informed consent cannot be gained
1.2 It is sometimes necessary to hide the true aims of the study to avoid demand characteristics so natural behaviour can be observed
1.3 If deception is used, a full debrief should be carried out, retrospective informed consent should be gained and the right to withdraw emphasized
2 Right to Withdraw
2.1 Participants may need to withdraw if they feel distressed or want to withdraw their data if they do not agree with the aims of the study
2.2 This may lead to biased findings if a lot of a certain type of data is withdrawn
2.3 The right to withdraw should be offered to all participants, even if only until the data is published
3 Informed Consent
3.1 Participants may feel that they should be told the aims and procedure of the study so that they can decide whether to participate or not
3.1.1 This was made a basic human right after the Nuremburg war trials
3.2 This could lead to demand characteristics, lowering the internal validity
3.3 Researchers may not be able to accurately predict risks.
4 Protection from harm
4.1 Without being protected from harm, people would be reluctant to participate in psychological studies
4.2 Some important questions cannot be answered without causing some distress
4.3 Harm-free experiments can be hard to guarantee due to individual differences
4.4 A participant should be exposed to no greater harm than they would be in real life.
4.4.1 Harm can be psychological or physical so the participant must leave in the same state they were in before
5 Confidentiality
5.1 The Data Protection Act makes confidentiality a legal requirement
5.2 Without confidentiality, people may be reluctant to participate in psychological studies
5.3 It can be hard to guarantee confidentiality because participants may be identified by their answers, but anonymity can be guarentreed
6 Invasion of Privacy
6.1 It can be hard to avoid invasion of privacy when observing people without their knowledge
6.2 Participants may disagree to being observed in certain places
6.3 Researchers can only observe people without their knowledge in public places
7 Animal Rights
7.1 It may not be possible to answer biological psychology questions on humans due to protection from harm rules
7.2 Some people believe that animals should have the same protection from harm as humans
7.3 Without animal rights, researchers may find it hard to find animals to use
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