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Observation

Description

Investigations
Kathey
Mind Map by Kathey, updated more than 1 year ago
Kathey
Created by Kathey over 7 years ago
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Resource summary

Observation
  1. Examples
    1. Bandura
      1. Used covert time sample d observation to record the children's aggressive behaviour
      2. Rosenhan
        1. Used participant observation to record the behaviour on psychiatric wards
        2. Milgram
          1. Observed the signs of stress/distress in the behaviour of the participants
        3. Sampling Observational Data
          1. Event Sampling
            1. Observing a event that has been defined/categorised before
              1. Observer records every time this event occurs
              2. Weakness: If too many of the obeserving subject happen at once, it's hard to record every single one
                1. Strength: Less chance of missing the behaviour when specifically looking for a certain behaviour
                2. Time Sampling
                  1. Specific time frames
                    1. Records what behaviours occur at the end of each time frame
                    2. Typically more than one observer
                      1. e.g. Bandura
                        1. Weakness: some behaviours may be missed and make it not representative
                          1. Strength: less time-consuming as the observation is structured and timed
                        2. Inter-observer (rater) Reliability
                          1. Pilot study
                            1. To check that all observers are recording the behaviour similarly
                          2. Advantages
                            1. No demand characteristics in a natural, uncontrived setting
                              1. Behaviour first hand not through self report methods
                              2. Disadvantages
                                1. No explanations of behaviours from participants because they have no knowledge of the observations
                                  1. Bias or misinterpreting observers
                                    1. Naturalistic observations are difficult to replicate
                                      1. Inter-observer (rater) reliability has to be done with more than one observer, which isn't always easy to establish
                                      2. Ethics
                                        1. Naturalistic observations
                                          1. No informed consent
                                            1. Participants should be observed in public where they are less likely to be distressed when finding out about the observation
                                              1. If the location of the observation is identifiable, not protecting confidentiality may be unethical
                                          2. Types of Observation
                                            1. Participant Observations
                                              1. The observer becomes part of the observation
                                                1. Disadvantage
                                                  1. Demand characteristics
                                                    1. Observer bias
                                                  2. Naturalistic Observations
                                                    1. Covert Observations
                                                      1. Participants are not fully aware of observation e.g. Observers may use on-way mirrors (stay hidden)
                                                      2. Overt Observations
                                                        1. Participants know they are being observed
                                                        2. Natural environment with no manipulation from the observers
                                                        3. Unstructured Observations
                                                          1. Qualitative data
                                                            1. Observers record what they see
                                                            2. Structured Observations
                                                              1. Quantitative data
                                                                1. Recorded through categorising behaviour
                                                                2. Controlled Observations
                                                                  1. Keep some variables controlled, normally in a laboratory or natural environment
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