Geophisical hazzards

meghansarah
Mind Map by meghansarah, updated more than 1 year ago
meghansarah
Created by meghansarah almost 5 years ago
11
1

Description

Release of pressure points on the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes

Resource summary

Geophisical hazzards
1 Volcanoes
1.1 hazzards
1.1.1 Tephra
1.1.1.1 AKA Volcanic Ash
1.1.1.2 tephra is not good for you, contains nasty chemicla which can kill livestock
1.1.1.3 if relant on rainwater for drinking water and you end up with tephra on your roof it could kill you due to the chemicals. the tank woudl eithere need relaced or scrubbed out at least
1.1.1.4 in the 1991 eruption the weigh of the tephra on the roofs caused them to collapse and crush the people inside. Demonstration of the need for building control!
1.1.1.5 Can kill due to heat, as it did to Maurice & Katia Kraft in 1991. The gasses given off can kill farm animals which for farms is their livelihood they have the potential to starve!
1.1.1.6 the effects of the tephra which is on the ground can cause respetory problems within people, Iceland has seen an increase from 13% to 25% of people surrounding the volcano having 2 + symptoms of resptery problems
1.1.1.7 Shut down European air space in 2010 due to Icelandic volcano, causing huge disrutions as happened in school easter holidays
1.1.1.8 Can have a coolling effect on the earth, as it reduces the sunlight levels which can penitraite the earths atmosphere, this was observed in 1991 due to two eruptions. this cooled the earth 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit (USGS 2007)
1.1.2 Lava
1.1.2.1 Flow is predicatable as it flows the course of a river.
1.1.2.2 can sometimes be diversted by dams and in Iceland, put galons of water on to sop them before they reach a town or city
1.1.2.2.1 In Iceland, 1970 1.5billion gallons of water over a peroid of 5 months whats used to stop and save a harbour town. this is the only example of this method working.
1.1.2.2.1.1 possible due to the slow moving lava and the infinite supply of water
1.1.2.3 consume static ifasstructure
1.1.2.4 lava consumes all statatc infrastructure within its path, such as homes and roads
1.1.2.5 Baxter 1982 states that lava is of little damage to human life.
1.1.2.6 Hawaii Kilauea volcano's has destroyed more than 200 structures since 1983; effects as it has forced people from, there homes, destroyed roads and therefore isolated communities, including hiway 103
1.1.3 Gasses
1.1.3.1 Some gasses are transported from the eruption site by the tephra others form salts and aerosols and are in the atmosphere
1.1.3.2 Nearly two thousand people have died of carbon dioxide asphyxiation near volcanoes in the past two decades (USGS 2007)
1.1.3.3 Asphiation was the underlying cause of 18 deaths of 23 within the Mount St Helens lateral blast zone (Baxter et al 1982)
1.1.4 procleastic flow
1.1.5 lehars and mass flow
1.1.5.1 see other mind map
1.1.6 Plinean eruption
1.1.6.1 large eruption coourm of gas and partices uo to the stratisphear, worrying side
1.2 Baxter et al 1982
1.2.1 predicted a death rate of 200,00 in the last 500 years
1.2.2 two types of danger; neer to volcano and also in the direction of the pervaling wind
1.2.2.1 stsates that esxposure to tephra and the high concentraitions of silica found in volcanic rocks can be harmull to the lungs.
1.2.2.2 ash is dangerous to human life as the ash can cause asphixiation and serious burns
1.2.2.2.1 Can be transported in the wind over large distances
1.2.3 the furthest death from the eruption and release from the mount st Helens 1980 eruption was 27km away and it was from pyroclastic flow
1.3 carlsen et al 2012
1.3.1 Study into the health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.
1.3.2 Shows that those in the path of the ash, where more liklly to experience exhaserbated symtoms of any lung or cardiovascular problems.
1.3.3 In iceland there has been an increase of people with the symptoms similar to asthma which could mean they where more liukly to get asthma bu the volcanic ash has exaserbated the symptoms
1.3.4 There was not an increase above expected levels of newly dignosed with lung problems imediatly folowing the volocano
1.3.5 24% compared to a pre volcano level of 13% had two or more lung/breathing symptoms
2 earthquakes
2.1 earthqukes are a pressure reslease from the earth as the techtonic plates move.
2.2 Japan.
2.2.1 Japan has many eathqukes and they practice thenm in schools, Childern dive under the desks whioch can provide a safe 'box'. it also allows rescures to fin them as they will all be in the class rooms under the desks. Teachers stand in the doorways.
2.2.1.1 due to this being considered a normall drill the children do it withough thinking,. they respond approperatly and dont panic.
2.2.1.2 Schools have go bags in classrooms which have first aid kits, blankets, water, food and toches in them. they can be the difference between death and survival.
2.2.2 have meeting points for adults so all can be accounted for
2.2.2.1 Instantly know who is and isnt at the meeting point and can give a focous point to where to serch. meaning that limited resorces can be channalled correctly
2.2.3 common practice to move cars to the sides of the road and leve the keas in them so they can be moved if approperate/needed.
2.2.4 have hand pumps which can be used to gain water from underground incase the mains pipes have been damaged by the earthquake
2.2.4.1 improves resilaince as not dependant on one sorrce of water, they can get it from various sorces which means there is likly to be water avalibe after an earthquake. which them means it is not a limiting factor.
2.3 Cannot predict the earthquakes, there can be signs that you might experience on such as pre tremmors
2.4 Can trigger other hazzards as seen in the nepal earthqukes of 2015. they caused avalances on Everest. there is peope stuck at camp 1 due to there climbing gar has been washed away.
2.4.1 17 people are known to have died and 61 injured all in base camp
2.4.2 100 people are stuck above base camp.
2.4.3 Socila media is playing its rol with survivours are able to 'tweet' and 'facebook' that they are ok and alive. this shows how reliance on technogy has increased and how it can get the word out quickly that things have happened!
2.4.4 Happened at spring thime which is when most of the attemts at everest are started and conducted
2.4.5 have limited resorces which are being impounded by the weather, due to bad weather they are unable to fly in helicopters to take out the wounded, people who where at base camp are making there way down the mountain into the valley on foot
2.4.6 rescues and aid are being hampered by the infastructure -roads/transport has been damaged.
2.5
2.6 Bam
2.6.1 2003
2.6.1.1 winter
2.6.1.1.1 cold in iran in witer, secondary problems set in such as the now homeless dieing from hypothemia
2.6.1.1.1.1 ave temp ion jan is 2 degrese
2.6.1.2 Happened in the morning when it is more likely that people will be in bed, therefore less likely to react (which cant really in an earthquake, too little time) more will die if in morning rather than in the afternoon when most people are out at work
2.6.2 mud built city
2.6.2.1 Mud bricks does not create a void space so people where crushedand then suffocated by the dust
2.6.3 priority for water, city was built on a fault line
2.6.4 re-built and renovated, in years priour, the Irianinan goverment paid for it.
2.6.4.1 regualtions skipped over and not adhered to and cost cutting due to not enough cement in the mixture
2.6.4.2 socialtal corruption and negligiance
2.6.4.3 how to deal with injured when hospital was flattened
2.6.5 2/3 of city population affeteced, 30 thousand lost loifes and 30thousand injured 75000 homeless
2.6.5.1 90% of homes had 60-100% damage
2.6.5.2 Montazeri, 2005
2.6.6 international responce form world, took 48hours.
2.6.6.1 goverment screened anyone comming into the country and from capital they made there way over land to the city.
2.6.7 talebian et al,2004
2.6.7.1 no recording of eartquake in history which goes back 500 years. even though the city sits on a fault location
2.6.8 Montazari et al, 2005
2.6.8.1 loss of comunity and family ties as 48% of the study stated that they lost 3-5 member of there family.
2.6.8.2 58% has developed a mental health issue since the quake, which is 3x the iran nationl average.
2.6.9 yano, NA
2.6.9.1 used GIS to see the city destruction
2.6.9.2 Using GIS ment that it would reduce the man hours aon the ground as it could be identified which areas where most effected then people could be sent to look at the damage and thefore making the most of the limited resorces.
2.6.9.3 85% of all infastructure was destroyed in bam.
2.7 Haiti
2.7.1 2.2million and only 300 thousand injured, 316 thousad deaths
2.7.1.1 official 300 thousand injured but un officila say 100 injured; people missed on record theree is no records. no one realise they are missing, after a time persumed dead. people assume new names or 'steal' names of those who they know are dead
2.7.1.2 talling numbers can be extreamly challanging.
2.7.2 1.3million displaces and nearly 1m homes distroyed
2.7.3 Buildings.
2.7.3.1 concreate in structure, poorly constructed
2.7.4 historical
2.7.4.1 cival war
2.8 chiil
2.9 Japan
3 techtonic hazzards
3.1 pressure release point
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