1 The CA seeks to prove the existance of God, it does this based on
the starting point that there is a universe.
1.1 Seeks to prove why there is a universe and a world we live in
rather than nothingness.
1.2 The argument focuses on the cause that leads to the existence of things.
1.2.1 There are three main questions the CA seems to answer.
18.104.22.168 How did the universe begin?
22.214.171.124 Why was the universe created?
126.96.36.199 Who created the universe?
2 The Classic CA.
2.1 Also known as the firt cause argument.
2.2 Exists from an A posteriori premise. This is as it can
be seen in the world and universe.
2.3 Starting point of this argument is observation of our world.
2.3.1 Shows that things move and change
2.3.2 Things are caused to happen as a result of how actions affect them.
2.3.3 We can see that things come into existence then
cease to exist.
2.3.4 However there is always
something in our universe.
There is never nothing.
188.8.131.52 The CA seeks to prove that the universe
(cosmos) and all that is in it has a cause. And
that cause is God.
2.4 Aristotle and the Prime Mover.
2.4.1 Ancient Greek Philosopher (384-322 BC).
2.4.2 Believed that all movement depends on there
being a mover.
184.108.40.206 Argues that behind every movement there must be a
chain of events that made the event are brought
220.127.116.11.1 There is a common source of all substance- something or
someone who was responsable for the beggining of
18.104.22.168.1.1 This being is immune
to death, change and
22.214.171.124.1.2 Eternal substance.
126.96.36.199.1.3 Exists necassarily.
188.8.131.52.1.4 Aristotle Argues that there must be an un moved mover who is the ultimate cause of the
universe as if there was no ultimate cause to begin the chain of causes and effects then
there would be no chain at all.
184.108.40.206.1.4.1 Nothing would have came into existence.
220.127.116.11.1.4.2 Aristotle calls this being the Prime mover.
18.104.22.168.1.4.3 The PM is perfect and all in this universe desire to be such and are
attracted to God as a result of this.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Aristotle argues that God/PM did not..
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 Create the universe.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2 Sustain the
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.3 Act in the
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4 Had no interest in the
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 God is supremely happy as God contemplates himself.
22.214.171.124.1.5 Spaceless and
2.4.3 Movement means change- growth, heating,
melting, cooling and heating.
2.4.4 The PM causes movement of other things, not as an efficient
cause, but as a final cause.
126.96.36.199 The PM does not start off the movement by giving a push,
but is the end purpous or Telos of the movement.
188.8.131.52.1 Aristotle meant that he thought an effective
cause , giving a push itself would need a cause.
184.108.40.206.1.1 He believed that the PM moved things by
attraction the same way a cat is attracted to a
saucer of milk.
3 St Thomas Aquinas's cosmological argument. God
of Classical Theism.
3.1 Wrote Summa Theolagicia.
3.2 Felt that Aristotles system of logic and ethics was
compatible with Christianity and often quoted Aristotle to
support his arguments..
3.3 Aquinas did not accept the statement "God exists" is
self-evident. He states that this proposition requires
3.4 Developed his "five ways" to prove the existence of God.
3.4.1 He called the demonstratio for
the existence of God.
3.5 His argument was
based on things that
could be observed.
3.5.1 His observations included
that even inanimate objects
could move and change
3.6 He reached the conclusion that there is a God
following his observations.
3.7 Three of Aquinas's ways to support the CA.
220.127.116.11 The first way.
18.104.22.168 Speaking of motion in the broadest sense.
22.214.171.124 Not only movement from place to
place but movement in sense of quality
126.96.36.199 Aquinas believed that objects are only
ever moved if an external force was
applied to it.
188.8.131.52 However this chain of movement
cannot go back infinatly.
184.108.40.206.1 There must have been an unmoved
mover who began the chain of
220.127.116.11 The need of an external influince.
18.104.22.168.1 Objects only change
because some external
force had brought about the
22.214.171.124.2 Achieve goals through
126.96.36.199.3 In order for something to change
it requires actuality.
188.8.131.52.4 Rejects infinate regress.
184.108.40.206.4.1 Must be a first movement/change brought about
by a first mover. This is God.
220.127.116.11 The second way.
18.104.22.168 Identified a
series of cause
and effects in
22.214.171.124 Nothing can be the cause of itself as that would
mean it existed before it existed. This would be a
126.96.36.199.1 Rejected an infinate series of
causes and believe there must
be a first, uncaused cause.
188.8.131.52.1.1 This first cause started the chain of cause that caused all events to happen.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 The first cause was God.
220.127.116.11 Rejection of infinite regress.
18.104.22.168.1 Aquinas proposed that there
had to be an 'uncaused cause'
that began the universe.
22.214.171.124.2 Rejected that motion and change or
cause and effect went back to infinity.
126.96.36.199.3 Aquinas rejceted motion
and change cannot go on
into infinity , because
there would be no first
mover and as a result no
188.8.131.52.3.1 There must be a first mover
which is how we define God
as there cannot be an
infinate regress of movers
putting objects into motion.
184.108.40.206 The third way.
220.127.116.11.1 Something MUST have
started off the universe.
18.104.22.168.1.1 This is based on the fact
that everything begins to
exist to have a cause.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 The universe began to
exist therefore it must
have a cause.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Based on the fact that the
universe came into existance
and that things in the
universe come into and out of
existance he considered the
possibility of infinite time.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 But if time is infinite then there must have
been a time when nothing existed. This is due to
CONTINGENCY. The very fact that things are
contingent means they cannot last forever.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 If there were a time when nothing existed then there
would still be nothing as nothing can bring itself into
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Therefore the cause of the universe must be external to
it and must have always existed.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 There must have always been a "necassary being" to
bring everything else into existence. He concluded
that if God didnt exist then nothing would exist.
4 Challenges to the CA.
4.1 David Hume.
4.1.2 Believed that all knowlage and ideas however complex, can be reduced
to some experience that our senses have provided.
22.214.171.124 Led him to humans know a great deal more about the external world than is
126.96.36.199.1 Hume argued that the mistakes human makes is to allow
imagination to make a connection between cause and effect.
188.8.131.52.1.1 Therfore Hume believes Aquinas is wrong in making the
connection frombetween cause and effect. According to
Hume, Aquinas's error was that cause and effect should be
observed seperatly rather than together as they are two
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Its just a habit of the mind to link the
two things and therfore there is no proof
for the universe to begin.
4.2 Immanuel Kant.
4.2.1 German Philosopher 1724-1804.
4.2.2 Examined the argument of the existance
of a supreme being as the first cause of
220.127.116.11 He argued that idea that every
event must have a first cause of
only applied to the world of sense experience.
18.104.22.168.1 It cannot apply to something we have not experienced.
22.214.171.124.1.1 Kant did not accept any justification for the conclusion
that God caused the universe to begin.
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 Kant would not accept any justification for the conclusion that God
caused the universe to begin.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 He would not accept it as valid to extend our knowlage
we do posseses to questions that transend our
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 God- be as a casual being outside space and time as we understand it.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 Therefore it would be impossible for God to have any knowlage of what God created, or God himself.