1.1.1 Central executive has a supervisory
function and it works like a filter. Directs
information to other slave master
systems. Also has a limited capacity and
processes one piece of info at a time.
1.1.2 Phonological Loop is a temporary storage
system for holding auditory information. It
has the INNER EAR (stores words you hear),
and the INNER VOICE (allows maintenance
1.1.3 Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
holds visual and spatial
information. Split into
the visual cache (form
and colour) and the
inner scribe (remembers
where things are).
1.1.4 Episodic buffer is a
system for info which
both long term
memory and the slave
system components of
1.2.1 Dual task studies show
it's easier to do tasks that
use different slave systems
at the same time than task
that use one slave system.
220.127.116.11 Baddley and Hitch: Asked participants to repeat a list of numbers and a task that asked them
whether statements were true or false. As the number of digits increased in the digit span tasks,
participants took longer to answer the statement questions, but not much longer - only fractions of a
second. And, they didn't make any more errors in the verbal reasoning tasks as the number of digits
18.104.22.168.1 The verbal reasoning
task made use of the
central executive and
the digit span task
made use of the
1.2.2 KF case study: Motorbike accident damaged his STM. His impairment was
mainly for verbal info, but his memory for visual info was unaffected. Shows
that different types of info are stored in different places.
22.214.171.124 However we can't generalise these findings as it's a one off.
1.2.3 We know very little
about the central
executive. It says
it's important but
it's very unclear as
to what it's exact
1.2.4 Doesn't expain the link
between the LTM and the
2 Multi-Store Model
2.1.1 Shiffrin and Atkinson proposed that
memory is made up of 3 stores. Sensory
memory, STM and LTM.
126.96.36.199 Sensory memory from your senses:
eyes, ears, mouth etc. When
attention is paid to something
in the environment it goes to
the STM, if not it decays.
188.8.131.52.1 Once info is in the STM it can be rehearsed
and then passed onto the LTM.
184.108.40.206 Encoding: it's the way info can be
stored. (1)Visual, (2)Semantic,
220.127.116.11 Duration:The period of time info can be stored for.
18.104.22.168.1 LTM: Up to a
2.2.1 Gives us good understanding
on the structure/process of
STM. Researchers can expand
on this model.
2.2.2 The model is reductionist.
Theres more to the LTM and
STM than this making this
model too simplistic.
2.2.3 Rehearsal may not
be that essential to
remember this in
our LTM. But
we have rehearsed.
2.2.4 Glanzer and Cuntiz found that
participants were able to recall
the first few and last few words
on a list. First words were most
likely put into the LTM and the
last ones in the STM. Supporst
the fact that there are separate
22.214.171.124 Loftus and Palmer: 45 participants shown slides of a car crash. Were asked 'about
how fast was the cars going when it 'hit/bumped/smashed/contacted/collided'
each other?' Found that the verb affect the speed recorded. 'Smashed' reported
the highest speed and 'contacted' reported the lowest.
126.96.36.199 Lacks mundane
realism. A clip
emotions etc of
crash, so it also
has low eco
188.8.131.52 Unrepresentative to the
wider population. Pps
may not be experienced
drivers and may have
guessed their estimated
184.108.40.206 Easy study to replicate
due to the fact that is a
lab experiment with set
220.127.116.11 Young children are more likely to
conform. They are also behind in their
cognitive development so they are more
likely to believe their distorted info.
18.104.22.168 Research shows 6 to 15 failed to
understand 1/3 of
questions asked in court.
Formal Qs make it harder
for them to understand
and therefore their
accounts are less likely to
22.214.171.124 Dodson and Krueger: asked college
students and older participants (60 - 80
years) to watch a 5 minute video of a
burglary and police chase, and answer 24
yes/no questions about what they saw in
the video. Eight of the questions referred to
details not in the video (i.e. misleading
information). Both young and older
participants made a similar rate of errors,
i.e. they claimed to have seen events not
shown in the video. However, the older
participants were more confident that their
answers were correct (when in fact they
126.96.36.199 Real life application: Juries are more
convinced by EWTs when the person is more
confident meaning they're most likely to
believe an adult over a child (they will most
likely be more accurate but not always)
188.8.131.52 When anxious/afraid we are more
likely to focus on whats making
us anxious, e.g. If a weapon is
used to threaten a victim, their
attention is likely to focus on it.
Consequently, their recall of
other information is likely to be
184.108.40.206 Yuille and Cutshall (1986) found that
people who witnessed a shooting in Canada
were very accurate in their accounts. High
anxiety was linked to high accuracy.
3.3.2 Weapon Focus
Effect: Witnesses my
focus on a weapon
more than the
person holding it.
220.127.116.11 Loftus: Participants
watched versions of the same
slides. One version had a
customer with a checkbook,
the other with a knife.
Found that people were
more likely to recall the
appearance of a customer
holding a checkbook than
when they were holding a
18.104.22.168 Loftus: Participants were placed under two
conditions. (1) overheard a discussion
on equipment failure on a lab
experiment. Someone emerged with
a pen in their hands covered in
grease. (2) heated discussion with the
sound of glass breaking and a chair
crashing. Someone emerged with a
paper knife in their hand covered in
blood. asked to identify the man from
50 pictures. 49% successfully
identified correctly in condition one.
33% in condition two.
22.214.171.124.1 A lot of experiments
are lab based so
they lack ecological
126.96.36.199.2 In the 2nd Loftus experiments pps
were lead to beleive it was real.
There is ethical reason here and
possible psychological harm. Also
they never had the right to withdraw.
3.4 Cognitive Interview
188.8.131.52 Context reinstatement: mentally
recreating the situation, including the
weather, participants mental
state/emotions at the time
184.108.40.206 Change perspective: changing the point of
view, describing what another witness
present at the scene would have seen.
220.127.116.11 Change order: The witness is asked to describe
the scene in a different chronological order e.g.
from the end to the beginning.
18.104.22.168 Report everything: The interviewer
encourages the witness to report all
details about the event, even though
these details may seem unimportant.
22.214.171.124 Time consuming process. Takes longer than a
standard police interview.
126.96.36.199 Some elements may be more effective than others. e.g
it was found that context reinstatement and report
everything were more effective when used together.
3.4.3 Real life application: Has increased accuracy in eyewitness
4 Memory Improvement
4.1 Elaborative Rehearsal
188.8.131.52 Elaborative rehearsal: making info more
meaningful (semantic). More effective than
maintenance rehearsal. Examples of how to
elaborate on information include using a mind
map to create meaningful links; and/or answer
questions that make you think about what you
have just read, and by making notes then
reconstructing the notes so they are organised
differently (making new links).
184.108.40.206 Research by Craik and Tulving (1975) shows
how elaborative rehearsal improves
memory. Participants were more likely to
remember words that had been deeply /
semantically processed (e.g. does the word
fit in a sentence) than shallow processed
(e.g. is a word in capital letters).
4.1.3 Acrostics and acronyms
220.127.116.11.1 Acronyms involve forming
a word from the initial
letters of the words to be
18.104.22.168.2 An acrostic involves forming a sentence
using the initial letters of the words to be
remembered - the new sentence should
22.214.171.124.1 Acrostics poems/Acronyms are
usually more amusing therefore
easier to remember. The sillier
they are, the more likely you are
to remember it.
126.96.36.199 My Very Easy Method Just Speeds Up Naming
Planets. (Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Saturn,