Organic Substances in Cells

rigbya2016
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Organic Substances in Cells

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Organic Substances in Cells
  1. Carbohydrates
    1. carbon + hydrogen + oxygen
      1. 3 groups
        1. monosaccharides
          1. simple carbohydrates
            1. glucose, fructose, galactose
              1. single units
              2. disaccharaides
                1. lactose, maltose, sucrose
                  1. simple carbohydrates
                    1. 2 units
                    2. polysaccharides
                      1. complex carbohydrates
                        1. starch, cellulose, glycogen
                          1. multiple units
                        2. source of energy
                          1. broken down to glucose
                            1. stored as fat if not used
                            2. Lipids
                              1. carbon + hydrogen + oxygen
                                1. fats, oils, waxes, steroids
                                  1. found in cell membranes
                                    1. used to store energy
                                    2. Proteins
                                      1. hydrogen + carbon + oxygen + nitrogen
                                        1. growth & repair
                                          1. form part of substances in body e.g. enzymes, blood
                                            1. built from amino acids
                                              1. linked by peptide bonds
                                              2. determine structure & function of cells
                                              3. Nucleic acids
                                                1. hereditary material
                                                  1. contain nucleotides
                                                    1. sugar
                                                      1. phosphate
                                                        1. base
                                                          1. A+T
                                                            1. G+C
                                                          2. RNA - single strand of nucleotides
                                                            1. found throughout cell
                                                              1. manufacture of proteins
                                                              2. DNA - double strand of nucleotides
                                                                1. found in chromosomes
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