GCSE PE Revision

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pe revision

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GCSE PE Revision
1 Warmup and cooldown
1.1 CV Warmup
1.1.1 Stretching
1.1.1.1 Specific skills practice
1.2 Prevents injury
1.2.1 Practice skills before the game
1.2.1.1 Prepare psychologically
1.3 Cool down flushes out lactic acid and helps to prevent stiffness and soreness in the muscles
2 Tests
2.1 HR tests
2.1.1 Cooper's run - CV fitness
2.1.1.1 Hand grip strength test - Muscular strength
2.1.1.1.1 Sit and reach test - Flexibility
2.1.1.1.1.1 Harvard step test -Muscular Endurance
2.2 SR tests
2.2.1 Illinois agility run (agility)
2.2.1.1 Standing stork test (balance)
2.2.1.1.1 Sergeant jump test (leg power)
2.2.1.1.1.1 Standing board jump (power)
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Ruler drop test (reaction time)
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 30-metre sprint (speed)
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Three ball juggle (coordination)
3 Principles of training
3.1 SPORRI
3.1.1 Specificity
3.1.1.1 Progressive Overload
3.1.1.1.1 Reversibility
3.1.1.1.1.1 Rest and Recovery
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Individual Needs
3.2 FITT
3.2.1 Frequency
3.2.1.1 Intensity
3.2.1.1.1 Time
3.2.1.1.1.1 Type
4 Benefits of taking part in physical activity
4.1 Physical - Physical challenge, Increase performance, Contribute to good physical health, increase fitness, improve heath related factors
4.2 Social - Make new friends, Develop teamwork skills, Work with others
4.3 Relieve or prevent stress, Mental challenge (can I do it?), Increase self esteem and confidence, make individual feel good
5 skill related components
5.1 co-ordination-the ability to use two or more body parts at once
5.2 agility-ability to change direction of movement quickly
5.3 reaction time-the time taken to react to the stimulus
5.4 balance-the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body
5.5 speed- the time taken to cover a distance
5.6 power-the ability to undertake strength performances quickly
6 Opportunities for getting involved
6.1 Government initiatives, i.e. two hours of PE per week
6.1.1 Active Kids Program
6.1.2 Sport England
6.2 PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL)
6.2.1 The Youth Sport trust (sports leaders)
6.3 Top link trust- keep people aged 14-16 involved in sport
7 Nutrients
7.1 Carbohydrates - provide energy
7.2 Fats - Provide energy with glycogen and help muscles work
7.3 Proteins - Help build muscle and repair damaged tissue
7.4 Minerals - Essential for a healthy body
7.5 Vitamins - Essential for healthy bones, vision, skin etc.
7.6 Adds bulk to food and aids digestive system
8 Factors affecting optimum weight
8.1 Height
8.1.1 Gender
8.1.1.1 Bone Structure
8.1.1.1.1 Muscle girth
9 Drugs
9.1 Anabolic steroids (allow you to train harder and recover quicker, risk of heart attack and strokes, infertility in women
9.1.1 Beta blockers (lower heart rate-steadiness), risk of nausea, tiredness and depression
9.1.1.1 Diuretics (increase urine-mask other drugs), risk of dehydration, and kidney problems long-term
9.2 Narcotic analgesics (reduce pain), loss of concentration, sometimes hallucinations
9.2.1 Stimulants (increase physcial alertness), High blood pressure, addiction, insomnia
9.2.1.1 Peptide hormones(produce other hormones), Increased risk of heart attack
9.3 Alcohol, affects coordination, damages liver, kidneys etc, slows reaction
9.3.1 Tobacco, Short of breath, increases risk of heart disease
10 Risk prevention
10.1 Warming up/cooling down
10.1.1 Checking equipment and facilities
10.1.1.1 Protective equipment and clothing
10.1.1.1.1 Balanced Competition
10.1.1.1.1.1 Playing to the rules of competition
10.1.1.1.1.1.1 Physical readiness
11 Cardiovascular system
11.1 Target heart rate or target zone: the range within which an individual needs to work aerobic training to take place (60-80% of maximum heart rate)
11.2 Maximum heart rate = 220 - Age
11.3 Immediate effects:increased heart rate, sweating,increased body temperature,increased blood presssure
11.4 long term effects: increased cardiac output, lower resting heart rate,increased number of capillaries, heart muscles increase in size, quicker recovery, increased stroke volume
11.5 consists of heart, blood vessels and the blood
11.6 functions: supply oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide
11.7 lifestyle effects: high cholesterol from fats
12 Respiratory system
12.1 tidal volume is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise
12.2 vital capacity-is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs .
12.3 immediate effects: breatging rate increase, oxygen debt
12.4 long term effects:increased efficency, increased vital capacity, increase amount of alveoli, carbon dioxide removed more efficiently
12.5 smoking causes the alveoli to become less stretchy and less eficient this is why smokers find it hard to breathe
13 Muscular system
13.1 immediate effects:lactic acid build up, cramp,increaase demand for oxygen
13.2 how the muscles work?
13.2.1 isontonic contraction-muscle contraction which results in movement
13.2.2 isometric contraction-muscle contraction which results in increased tension however the length does not alter
13.3 long term effects: increased muscle size (hypertrophy), increased muscular strength, better posture, increased bone strength, increased power
13.4 potential injuries: soft tissue
14 Skeletal system
14.1 functions: 1. support 2. movement 3.protection
14.2 joints: hinge joint, ball and socket joint and pivot joint
14.2.1 movement: flexion, extention, adduction, abduction and rotation
14.3 effects of exercise: increase bone density, increased ligament and tendon strength, increased flexibility
14.4 impotance of weight bearing exercises: to reduce the risk of getting osteoporosis
14.5 injuries: broken bone, fracture, dislocation and sprain
15 Reasons for taking part
15.1 physical challenge
15.1.1 taking part in the London Marathon
15.2 aesthetic appreciation
15.2.1 the beauty of the movement and how well its performed e.g gymnastics
15.3 co-operation
15.3.1 improving teamwork, e.g netball or rugby
15.4 the frienships and social mixing
15.4.1 develop motivation to participate
15.5 competition
15.5.1 relieve stress by taking mind off other things like exams
16 influences on taking part
16.1 people
16.1.1 family and peers
16.2 image
16.2.1 having the right equipment which is fashionable eg. nike trainers
16.3 cultural factors
16.3.1 disabilities may cause people to not be able to partiucipate in sports however opportunities are increasing another cultural factor is age and gender
16.4 resources
16.4.1 availability of facilities and resources or the location of facilities
16.5 health and wellbeing
16.5.1 illness may cause people not to be able to participate
16.6 socio-economic
16.6.1 cost can effect people choices as if they cannot afford it their socio-economic status has influenced their involvement
17 health related components
17.1 cardiovascular fitness-the ability to exercise the entire body for a long period of time
17.2 muscular endurance-the ability to use the voluntary muscles without getting tired
17.3 muscular strength- the amount of force able to exert against a resistance
17.4 body composition- the percentage of body weight thats body fat, bone and muscle
17.5 flexibility-the range of movement possible at a joint
18 weight related conditons
18.1 obese-a term used to descirbe people who are very overdat
18.2 overfat- having body fat in excess of normal
18.3 anorexic-a loss of appetite which causes weight loss
18.4 overweight- having weight in excess of normal but not harmful
18.5 underweight-is weighing less than normal
18.6
19 Participation Pyramid
19.1 Participation
19.2 Elite
19.3 Performance
19.4 Foundation
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