A Recipe For Dictatorship

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Chapter 7 Sabaria A & Christyn C.

Resource summary

A Recipe For Dictatorship
  1. Propaganda
    1. Ideas or statements that are often false and exaggerated; that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, or a government.
      1. Hitler used propaganda in many ways, he restricted the books that were available to the public and what books could be published, often these books talked about how evil Jewish people were in order to skew the thoughts of the German youth.
        1. Stalin also used propaganda as a technique of gaining and keeping power. He used many posters showcasing him with smiling children; thus giving the illusion that everyone is happy and equal in the Soviet Union. Posters, with slogans such as, “Long live Red Army of workers and peasants – the true guard of the Soviet borders!” Many of the posters also encouraged the young men to join the army and the air force.
          1. Both of these leaders also used propaganda speeches to further their false ideas and statements to the citizens of their countries. Propaganda was used in various ways during World War II by both Hitler and Stalin; they used it to perpetuate the ideas that citizens under their ruling were living happy and peaceful lives and that their way of lives were superior to those that lived in other ways.
            1. The technique of propaganda rejected the values of liberalism because it controlled the views and opinions of the citizens and also took away their rights and freedoms to express their beliefs
            2. Terror & Force
              1. Terror and Force was used mainly by Hitler when he was eliminating the opposing parties that had the power to overthrow him and challenge his ideas. Later on during his ruling, he used this technique to scare the citizens into believing that his ideas alone were the right ones; with his “army” being larger than the German army the citizens of Germany were scared of what could happen but they were also grateful for the new standard of living they had. Although many Germans did not agree with minority groups, opposing parties, the mentally ill, and the Jewish being sent to concentration camps they were too scared to speak up due to the fear that the Gestapo would show up at their houses and have them sent to these places too.
                1. Joseph Stalin also used the technique of Terror and force; this was very prominent during what is known as the, “The Great Purge” and the “Great Terror”. Some of his goals during this time was to rid The Soviet Union of all of Stalin’s real and also imaginary enemies, and to also scare all levels of the Soviet society into being obedient to him, “The Great Leader.” The leaders of Stalin’s rivals were discredited and later executed. Between the years of 1937 and 1939, under Stalin’s command 500,000 people were executed and between 3 and 12 million people were sent to labour camps.
                  1. The technique of terror & force rejected the values of liberalism due to the fact that it took away individuals values and beliefs. They were forced to follow one way and one way only.
                  2. Youth Movements
                    1. Hitler used many youth movements and organizations in order to influence the young population of the Germany. The young men of Germany were taught obedience, discipline, and why the Nazi way was the right way. The young women of Germany were taught about home economics, motherhood, and the importance of creating a pure Aryan family; the Nazi rule encouraged women to become the ‘perfect’ housewife. Due to the non-homework filled days, many young people preferred these movements and organizations to school.
                      1. The children of the Soviet Union were expected to go to school, however outside of school they were expected to join organizations. These organizations were categorized by age groups; Octobrists for 8 to 10 year olds, Pioneers for 10-16 year olds, and 19-23 were expected to join the Komsomol. The children were taught how to be a good socialist/communist and it placed a large emphasis on outdoor activities and clean living. Though propaganda children were seen as the loyal socialists of the future and Stalin was seen as the father that was raising the future of the Soviet Union.
                        1. The technique of Youth Movements rejected the values of liberalism due to fact that it didn’t allow the children to think for themselves and to learn what they value and believe through life lessons, instead they were taught and shown only specific things so that the future of the country could be ensured even when the leaders had passed away
                        2. Scapegoat
                          1. Stalin looked for scapegoats, ordering the arrest and execution of commanders such as General Pavlov and his Chief of Staff on charges of deliberate sabotage of the war effort. Stalin also refused requests for permission to retreat by his field commanders, contributing directly to a series of disastrous Red Army encirclements including at Kiev in September 1941.
                            1. In 1920, Hitler joined and soon became leader of the group called the “National Socialist German Workers’ Party,” later to be known as the Nazi Party. Hitler knew how to arouse people and understood how a “scapegoat” could unite Germany. He kept on repeating that Germany lost the war because of the “Marxian-democratic-liberal-capitalistic Jews” who stabbed it in the back to aid the country's enemies. In fact, in an April 1923 speech, he even charged the Jews with having caused the world war in the first place. They brought it on, he said, to destroy the Aryan (a Caucasian of non-Jewish descent, like a Nordic, who were tall, blond, blue-eyed people) civilization. Hitler believed he could win back Germany’s past glory and promised to rebuild Germany into a mighty empire that would last a thousand years and that only the Nazi party could do this. Many Germans believed he was their friend and protector, their Savior and went along using Jews as their scapegoat.
                              1. The technique of scapegoat rejected liberalism by taking away the fundamental rights of equality each individual should be given. Innocent civilians were blamed for things they were not responsible for and were forced to suffer in their place.
                              2. Elimination of Opposition
                                1. The Enabling Act of March 1933 had given Hitler enormous power over all Germans in Nazi Germany. Anyone considered to be a threat to Hitler was arrested and issued with a ‘D notice’. The law was ‘adjusted’ to allow the Nazis to effectively determine who was an opponent. Once labelled as such, arrest was inevitable. The development and expansion of various police units – both in uniform and un-uniformed – gave the internal security forces a massive level of power.
                                  1. Hitler created what was known as the SS or the dreaded "black shirts" which were originally created as the Gestapo. The Gestapo originated as Hitlers secret service which set out against Goering political opponents and soon expand to the SS who were able to seize and arrest anyone at will without any regard for the law or court
                                  2. The "liquidation of the kulaks as a class" was announced by Joseph Stalin on 27 December 1929. Stalin had said that "Now we have the opportunity to carry out a resolute offensive against the kulaks, break their resistance, eliminate them as a class and replace their production with the production of kolkhozes and sovkhozes.
                                    1. By 1939, 99 per cent of land had been collectivised 90% of the peasants lived on one of the 250,000 kolkhoz. Farming was run by government officials. The government took 90 per cent of production and left the rest for the people to live on.
                                    2. The elimination of opposition done by Hitler and Stalin restricted personal freedom by eliminating privacy and the need for warrant-pass legislation. Hitler and Stlain restricted individuals from freedom by opposing any necessary actions that would aid them in their plans and allow the to prosper
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