Biology

elliedavey52
Mind Map by elliedavey52, updated more than 1 year ago
elliedavey52
Created by elliedavey52 over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Biology, created by elliedavey52 on 05/07/2015.

Resource summary

Biology
  1. The nervous system
    1. Stimulus
      1. Receptor
        1. Sensory Neuron
          1. CNS
            1. Central nervous system
              1. Motor Neurons
                1. Effector
                  1. Eg muscle
                    1. Responce
                      1. Eg move arm away
            2. e.g. put hand near flame
            3. Iris Relex
              1. In bright light
                1. Circular muscle contractions
                  1. Radial muscles relax
                    1. pupil is smaller
                    2. In dim light
                      1. Radial muscles contract
                        1. Circular muscle relax
                          1. Larger pupil
                          2. Close Objects
                            1. Ciliary muscles contract
                              1. Suspensory ligaments relax
                                1. Eyes get tired
                                  1. Iris blobby
                                  2. Far Away Objects
                                    1. Ciliary muscles relax
                                      1. suspensory ligaments tighten
                                        1. Iris pulled flat
                                        2. Blind spot
                                          1. In each eye where the optic nerve leaves the retina
                                      2. Reproduction
                                        1. The menstrual cycle
                                          1. Oestrogen
                                            1. Released by the ovaries
                                              1. Stops FSH being produced
                                                1. FSH starts the development of an egg
                                                2. Repairs the lining
                                                3. Progesterone
                                                  1. Keeps the lining thick
                                                  2. 28 day cycle
                                                    1. Day 14 egg realesed
                                                    2. Sperm
                                                      1. Made by the testes
                                                        1. Stored in the epididymis
                                                          1. Travels out in the Urethra
                                                        2. Asexual and Sexual
                                                          1. Asexual (natural clones)
                                                            1. Advantages
                                                              1. Fast reproduction
                                                                1. No need to find a mate
                                                                2. Disadvantages
                                                                  1. All individuals (clones) may die if there is a dies of climate change as there is no variation to survive this
                                                                3. Sexual (with a mate)
                                                              2. Food production
                                                                1. Selective breeding
                                                                  1. Microproperganda
                                                                    1. Take a cutting
                                                                      1. Mash the cutting
                                                                        1. Into individual cells
                                                                          1. Add to agar and glucose and amino acids
                                                                            1. Mash up again
                                                                              1. Add to agar and glucose and amino acids
                                                                                  1. Add Auxin
                                                                                    1. To promote growth
                                                                                      1. Move the plants to a greenhouse
                                                                                        1. To acclimatise them
                                                                                          1. Move plants outside
                                                                                  2. Grow to plantlets
                                                                            2. Take cuttings and grow them
                                                                              1. Breed selected animals
                                                                              2. Making Yogurt
                                                                                1. Get some milk
                                                                                  1. Pasteurise it
                                                                                    1. 85ºc for 15-30 mins
                                                                                      1. Don't boil was it changes the taste
                                                                                      2. Homogenise it
                                                                                        1. Stir so it is an even consistency
                                                                                          1. Cool to 40ºc
                                                                                            1. Add lactobacillus
                                                                                              1. Incubate for several hours
                                                                                                1. cool to 4ºc
                                                                                                  1. bacteria division/growth/respiration slowed
                                                                                                    1. Add sugar/fruit
                                                                                                      1. For flavouring
                                                                                                  2. convert lactose to lactic acid
                                                                                                  3. So there is fast reproduction
                                                                                          2. Making beer
                                                                                            1. Get barley seeds
                                                                                              1. Because it stores a lot of starch
                                                                                                1. Let the seeds germinate
                                                                                                  1. Kill the seed
                                                                                                    1. Before the maltose is used up in respiration
                                                                                                      1. Crush them
                                                                                                      2. Filter and add water to make molt
                                                                                                        1. Sterilise it
                                                                                                          1. Kill all micro-organisms
                                                                                                            1. boil it
                                                                                                            2. Add hops for taste
                                                                                                              1. Add yeast
                                                                                                                1. Fermentation
                                                                                                                  1. (Anaerobic respiration)
                                                                                                                    1. Produces ethanol and carbon dioxide
                                                                                                                  2. Filter again
                                                                                                                    1. Pasteurise
                                                                                                                      1. Heat for a few seconds.
                                                                                                                        1. Don't boil
                                                                                                                        2. Put in barrels
                                                                                                            3. Amylase is produced and digests the starch into maltose
                                                                                                        2. cloning
                                                                                                          1. Take a body cell from animal A
                                                                                                            1. The donor
                                                                                                              1. Take an egg cell from animal B
                                                                                                                1. Haploid number
                                                                                                                  1. Take the nucleus out of the egg
                                                                                                                    1. enucleated egg
                                                                                                                      1. Use a pipet to transfer somatic cell
                                                                                                                        1. OR use an electric shock to fuse the two together
                                                                                                                          1. Wait until the cell has divided
                                                                                                                            1. Transfer the embryo into surrogate mothers uterus
                                                                                                                              1. You have a clone of animal A
                                                                                                                      2. Diploid number
                                                                                                                      3. Making genetically identical copies
                                                                                                                        1. Asexual reproduction
                                                                                                                      4. Genetic modification
                                                                                                                        1. Some people cannot make insulin
                                                                                                                          1. A protein made in the pancreas
                                                                                                                            1. So they must inject it
                                                                                                                              1. So we get bacteria to make insulin
                                                                                                                                1. Take a chromosome from a non-diabetic
                                                                                                                                  1. Cut out the gene that makes insulin
                                                                                                                                    1. Using a restriction enzyme
                                                                                                                                      1. Cut a plasmid
                                                                                                                                        1. Using a restriction enzyme
                                                                                                                                          1. Join the plasmid and the gene
                                                                                                                                            1. With ligase
                                                                                                                                              1. Makes a recombinant DNA
                                                                                                                                                1. Insert the plasmid into a host cell
                                                                                                                                                  1. usually bacteria
                                                                                                                                                    1. not animal because
                                                                                                                                                      1. No vet bills
                                                                                                                                                        1. Less space needed
                                                                                                                                                          1. Continuous + rapid reproduction
                                                                                                                                                        2. plasmid replictates
                                                                                                                                                    2. A vector
                                                                                                                                      2. Classification
                                                                                                                                        1. Kingdoms
                                                                                                                                          1. Bacteria
                                                                                                                                            1. Single celled
                                                                                                                                              1. No nucleus
                                                                                                                                                1. But do have a large circular chromosome
                                                                                                                                                2. Example: Lactobacillus bulgaricus
                                                                                                                                                3. Protoctists
                                                                                                                                                  1. Single celled
                                                                                                                                                    1. Not animals as they have no embryo stage
                                                                                                                                                      1. Example: Amoeba
                                                                                                                                                      2. Fungi
                                                                                                                                                        1. Have a nucleus
                                                                                                                                                          1. Can be single celled or form hyphae
                                                                                                                                                            1. long threads of joined cells with many nuclei
                                                                                                                                                            2. Cell wall made by chitin
                                                                                                                                                              1. Feed by extra cellular digestion
                                                                                                                                                                1. They are saprophytes
                                                                                                                                                                2. Example yeast
                                                                                                                                                                3. Plants
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Have a nucleus
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Are multicelluar
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Have a cellulose cell wall
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Have chloroplasts
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Store carbohydrates as starch
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Animals
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Have no cell wall
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Eat other organisms
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Store carbohydrates as glycogen
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Viruses
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Not cells
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. No nucleus
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. DO have DNA
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Protein coat
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Reproduce inside living cells
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Example: influenza virus
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. Ecology
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Deforestation
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Why
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. To make room for buildings
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Wood for furniture
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Fuel
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Paper
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Room for crops
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. consequences
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Draught
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Because of no transpiration
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Loss of habitat
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Loss of food for animals
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Soil erosion/Leaching
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Oxygen levels decrease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. No photosynthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Green house effect
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Global warming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Caused by the increase of greenhouse gases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Short wave heat radiation in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Long reflects off the earth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Not all can escape our atmosphere
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