early relationships

Choon Fuller
Mind Map by Choon Fuller, updated more than 1 year ago
Choon Fuller
Created by Choon Fuller about 6 years ago
4
1

Description

mind map for all of the key information on social development

Resource summary

early relationships
  1. infant-caregiver interactions
    1. immediate physical contact

      Annotations:

      • for the formation of a bond 
      1. imitation

        Annotations:

        • shows children are innately social
        1. Melzoff and moore's facial expressions

          Annotations:

          • significant association between the models behaviour and the infants behaviour. Infants are able to imitate specific facial expressions or hand movements
        2. interactional synchrony

          Annotations:

          • babies coordinate their actions in time with adult speech. securely attached bonds had more interactional synchrony - Isabella
          1. Motherese

            Annotations:

            • adults use distinctive language patterns when talking to children. Usually slow, repetitive, varied in intonation and consisting of small messages
            1. Evaluation
              1. myers - immediate physical contact is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of attatchment
                1. young babies are not intentionally social

                  Annotations:

                  • babies will respond in a similar way to inanimate objects 
                  1. 5 and 12 week old babies would not imitate expressions simulated using objects
                  2. Interactional synchrony is not related to security of attachment in all cultures
                    1. No evidence suggests that motherese directly affects the formation or quality of an attachement
                  3. Animal Research
                    1. Harlow's monkeys

                      Annotations:

                      • infant monkeys preferred to spend time close to the cloth mother even though food was on the wire mother. These monkeys were antisocial and aggressive
                      1. Evaluation
                        1. Darwin suggests that it is safe to generalize findings from animal research

                          Annotations:

                          • All species are genetically related. The field of comparative psychology involves studing other species then making extrapolations
                          1. unethical

                            Annotations:

                            • caused the monkey's distress
                            1. the only way to determine cause and effect
                            2. used to support Bowlby's hypothesis that babies have a critical period
                          2. Functions of attachment
                            1. Cupboard love

                              Annotations:

                              • infants attach to the person who provides nurture in the form of food
                              1. Survival value

                                Annotations:

                                • animals display an innate, instinctual drive to maintain proximity to caregiver for protection
                                1. Communation

                                  Annotations:

                                  • babies attach to those who can best communicate with them and understand their needs 
                                  1. Internal working model

                                    Annotations:

                                    • early relationships act as a model for future ones
                                    1. Evaluation
                                      1. The internal working model is too general to be used
                                        1. Pessimistic, deterministic view

                                          Annotations:

                                          • suggesting if your first relationship is unhappy and insecure then all future relationships will be 
                                          1. Combines several perspectives

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Cognitive perspective - understanding of attachment Behaviourist - rewarding behaviour makes it likely to be repeated
                                      2. Measuring attachments
                                        1. Ainsworth's strange situation

                                          Annotations:

                                          • using mainly proximity seeking and maintenance of proximity ainsworth found 65% of infants have secure attachments, then insecure avoidant and insecure ambivalent
                                          1. Insecure avoidant

                                            Annotations:

                                            • ignores mother, treats her like a stranger
                                            1. Secure

                                              Annotations:

                                              • happy with mother, distressed when mother leaves, wary of stranger
                                              1. Insecure ambivalent

                                                Annotations:

                                                • fussy, difficult and cries a lot. Distressed when mother leaves, not comforted by her return
                                                1. Evaluation
                                                  1. replicated many times

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • to test reliability over time and over culture 
                                                    • others have found a relationship between infant attachment and later life attachment
                                                    1. The behaviours in each category are questionable

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • proximity seeking is seen as a sign of a secure attachment, however a secure infant are often happy to explore
                                                      1. neglected wider influences on attachment

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • additional factors might affect security of attachment e.g. temperament or socio-economic background
                                                        1. Fixed categories are over-simplified

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • it is more sensible to consider attachment as a two dimensional construct 
                                                      2. Van Ijzendoorn

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • German infants had the highest proportion of insecure avoidant infants. Israeli and Japanese infants showed the highest proportion of insecure ambivalent behaviour
                                                        1. Cross cultural
                                                        2. Adult attachment interview

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • people fall into 4 categories -  insecure dismissing autonomous secure insecure preoccupied unresolved
                                                          1. Attachment Q-sort

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • on a scale of 1 - 9, 1 being least like child and 9 most like the child
                                                          2. Consequences of privation/deprivation
                                                            1. Deprivation
                                                              1. short term
                                                                1. crying and struggling
                                                                  1. despair
                                                                    1. detatchment
                                                                    2. Long term
                                                                      1. fear of future deprivation
                                                                        1. clingy behaviour
                                                                          1. aggression
                                                                          2. Belsky's day care

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • 26% of children in day care for less than 20 hours a week showed insecure attachments compared to 41% for more than 20 hours
                                                                          3. Privation
                                                                            1. consequences
                                                                              1. delinquent behaviour
                                                                                1. aggression
                                                                                  1. no language
                                                                                  2. Koluchova twins

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • within 3 years (from 7 - 10) the tins had adopted language and had an average intelligence level with normal attachments
                                                                                    1. Rutters romanian orphans

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • around 50% of romanian orphans showed intellectual deficits. British orphans showed none. After 4 years there was no significant difference 
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