networks

Rui Che
Mind Map by Rui Che, updated more than 1 year ago
Rui Che
Created by Rui Che over 6 years ago
19
0

Description

Mind Map on networks, created by Rui Che on 05/16/2015.

Resource summary

networks
  1. Howard Rheingold

    Annotations:

    • One origin in Howard Rheingold’s book The Virtual Community (1st edi1 on 1994):
    1. 作用
      1. generate ‘conviviality,enable problem solving
        1. challenge dominance of mass media
          1. may also become commodified
          2. network的结构
            1. Sender can broadcast to whole network
              1. Any receiver of sent message can also broadcast similarly
                1. Any receiver can communicate back to sender individually
                  1. a networked communications ‘infrastructure’ enabled by links between computers.
                2. Manuel Castells
                  1. the rise of networked society
                    1. networked "space of flow"links between nodes/hubs, without single centre

                      Annotations:

                      • societies are increasingly structured around a bipolar opposition between the Net and the self’
                      1. tension

                        Annotations:

                        • the network society increasingly appears to people as a meta-­‐social disorder
                      2. communication power

                        Annotations:

                        • Explores whether the ‘relatively stable configurations built on the intersections of these networks may provide the boundaries that could redefine a new ‘society’’. (2009: 19)
                        1. Networks are flexible, scalable, and durable
                          1. ‘Mass self-­‐communication’
                            1. whose power

                              Annotations:

                              • How people think about the insEtutions under which they live, and how they relate to the  culture of their economy and society, define whose power can be exercised and how it can be exercised
                          2. Benkler

                            Annotations:

                            • ‘the wealth of networks’:how social productions transform markets and freedom  (2006) the information economy has ushered in an era of human cooperation in which the limits of capitalism are transcended by new models of social production, facilitated to a large extent by digital networks
                            1. what is in these networks

                              Annotations:

                              • a good deal more that human beings value can now be done by individuals who interact with each other socially, as human beings and social beings, rather than as market actors through the price system
                              1. reduced economic costs of gathering/sharing information and knowledge

                                Annotations:

                                •    -          “ The information economy has ushered in an era of human cooperation in which the limits of capitalism are transcended by new models of social production, facilitated to a large extent by digital networks.   
                            2. examples
                              1. Henry Jenkins
                                1. online fan networks
                                2. Beth Noveck
                                  1. problem-­‐solving for government by online networks of experts
                                  2. Jack Qiu
                                    1. ICT needs and networking capacity of Chinese migrant workers
                                  3. Miller and Slater

                                    Annotations:

                                    • The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach 2000 the need to think online processes and broader cultural/social context together
                                    1. the need to think online processes and broader cultural/social context together
                                    2. Geert Lovink

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Networks without Cause 2012:6
                                      1. ‘networks without cause are time eaters, and we’re only being sucked deeper into the social cave without knowing what to look for’

                                        Annotations:

                                        • 认为网络会消耗时间,是一个带有倾向性的论断
                                      2. Ulises Mejias

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Off the Network: Disrupting the Digital World 2013
                                        1. Charlie DeTar:google bike maps

                                          Annotations:

                                          • DIY attendence 众包 examples of peer- to- peer distributed models of collaboration 个人贡献被企业所利用,因此企业有更深的渠道去利用个人
                                          1. communicative capitalism

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Communicative capitalism explains how digital networks generate inequality through participation while it is true that the technologies of communicative capitalism embody practices of inclusion, they also perpetuate the ideology of capitalism and obstruct any resistance to it, as Dean proposes
                                            1. definition by Jodi Dean

                                              Annotations:

                                              • “the materialization  of ideas of inclusion and participation in information, entertainment, and communication technologies in ways that capture resistance and intensify global capitalism.”
                                              1. participation lead to the failure in resistance to capitalism

                                                Annotations:

                                                •      (1)”Networked participation itself can be narrated as an expression of the spirit of capitalism: fair, security, exiting -            (2)” Communicative capitalism does not stop people from expressing themselves but forces them to express themselves continuously.”   
                                                1. criticized by Deleuze

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • communicative capitalism does not stop people from expressing themselves but forces them to express themselves continuously
                                                  1. a nodocentric flter to social formations

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • every thing and every utterance must be integrated or assimilated as a node in the digital network
                                                  2. Commodifcation

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • the process of taking something that is outside the market (something without commercial value) and bringing it into the market, turning it into a commercial transaction lead to a means of resisting the inequalities that capitalism produces
                                                    1. privatization

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • services (such as education, health, transportation, etc.) provided by the state are replaced by services citizens have to pay for out of their own pocket while continuing to pay taxes.
                                                      1. commercialization

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • things like scientifc research increasingly serve private, not public,interests, or where intellectual property laws keep cultural goods in private hands for longer instead of releasing them as public goods
                                                        1. the socialization of labor

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • example:女性纳入工人阶层 家庭卫生从妇女应该做的事情进化到一种职业
                                                          1. result

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Without this process of commodification, which grants more freedom and independence to some types of exploited workers, there would be no eventual challenge to private property and no eventual breakdown of capitalism commodification of the social in digital networks, the process whereby our social lives are subordinated to the logic of nodocentrism, can both open and close productive forms of sociality that challenge capitalism
                                                          2. 考题
                                                            1. Evaluate Ulises Mejias' claim that social media platforms operate as a "colonization of our collective power to imagine community" (2013:14)
                                                            2. Nick的总结

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • social networking plasorms as monopsony (many sellers, one buyer), not monopoly (many buyers, one seller or producer) wider critique of common claims about the social significance of ‘social’ networks
                                                              1. 批判Benkler

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • Unfortunately, many of the authors who write about the digital network tend to bypass the issue of who owns and controls it and for what purpose.
                                                                1. Digital Network as a playbor
                                                                  1. 通过节点的包含机制

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • A rationalized game depend on the mechanics of exclusion and inclusion of the network.
                                                                    1. participation as a way of control

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      •    Participation(coercion imposed by system) is both a form of violence and a form of pleasure    “No external institutions are required to enforce this episteme because it is affirmed through our personal use of technology, establishing network as the main template for organizing and understanding the real.”   
                                                                      1. ownership的错觉

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        •    So many participants that it would appears as if ownership of the network is distributed.      But what to be distributed is the opportunities for generating value for the companies that own the various parts of the network  
                                                                      2. the limits of a participatory culture in the context of capitalism and consumerism.
                                                                        1. Peter Levine

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • the challenges that students face and will continue to face in fnding appropriate audiences for their civic- oriented participatory media work in an environment dominated by commercial products
                                                                          1. Kathryn Montgomery

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • the move toward increasingly personalized media and one- to- one marketing may encourage self- obsession, instant gratifcation, and impulsive behaviors.”
                                                                            1. Stephen Coleman

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • questions the capacity of government- driven digital media curriculums to address questions that might potentially challenge the power and legitimacy of corporations or the state.
                                                                              1. friendly violence

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • A common thread in most critiques is that authority in the participatory culture operates not by threatening to expel us from the network, but by making it diffcult to resist participating in the network in the frst place.
                                                                                1. 内在逻辑

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • the belief that participation in networks creates equality and diversity is, in fact, a rejection of difference, because ways of belonging that do not conform to nodocentrism become an impossibility within the network.
                                                                              2. Capitalizing the Social
                                                                                1. Google and Facebook

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • If Google is changing our cognitive makeup, Facebook is rewriting our social one. The rise of the digital network as a template for organizing sociality means that corporations are playing and will continue to play a major role in shaping the modes of participation and citizenship in our societies.
                                                                                  1. 提升参与

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • It is undeniable that social network services provide some opportunities for social and civic participation
                                                                                    1. privated owned

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • which designs become dominant, and what forms of social participation they normalize.
                                                                                    2. The Dominant Market Structure of Participatory Media

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • social media 对于民主的意义
                                                                                      1. 好处

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • the end of cultural monopolies
                                                                                        1. content producer

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • no longer is an elite minority in control of the production
                                                                                          1. peer- to- peer fashion
                                                                                            1. replacing top- down hierarchies
                                                                                              1. realistic alternative

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • Subscribers to this idealistic discourse of digitalism33 believe that the Internet can be a space free of exploitation, and that the new models of cooperation are leading to the only realistic alternative for reimagining the failed social institutions of our times (the state, the corporation, the school, the church, etc.).
                                                                                              2. 坏处(重点)
                                                                                                1. public sphere are controlled by private interests

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • Thus corporations— not governments or civil society— are believed to be best equipped to meet the communication infrastructure needs of democracies;
                                                                                                  1. not all actors in a market have the same power or access to the same resources.

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • The so- called open or fat markets of the information age replicate these failings to a large extent because these markets where supposedly all participants are equal are not free of exploitation
                                                                                                  2. Should our digitally augmented democracy at home be built on the promotion of oppression, exploitation, and pollution somewhere else

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • 富士康Foxconn
                                                                                                    1. 经济模式的转变:Coundry的总结

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • the single- seller monopoly has merely been replaced by the single- buyer monopsony.Thus one- to- many is not giving way to many- to- many without frst going through many- to- one.
                                                                                                      1. if we are not paying for a product, we are the product.
                                                                                                    2. The Economics of Media Conglomeration

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • Disidentification – imagining and claiming difference in opposition to the digital network monopsony – will become a necessary step in the actualization of alternative ways of knowing and acting in the world.
                                                                                                      1. 1. Conglomeration mirrors traditional broadcast media;
                                                                                                        1. The question of government role in allowing these “natural monopolies” thriving.
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