Extreme Environments

J_McNally
Mind Map by J_McNally, updated more than 1 year ago
J_McNally
Created by J_McNally over 6 years ago
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Edexcel GCSE Geography B Unit 1

Resource summary

Extreme Environments
  1. Characteristics of extreme climates
    1. Hot arid climate
      1. Hot temperatures in the day (above 30ºC)
        1. Under 250mm/year in rain
          1. Occasional intense downfall causes flash flooding
          2. Little life can survive
            1. Little seasonal variation
            2. Polar climate
              1. Under 300mm/year in rain
                1. Very cold winters (-50ºC)
                  1. Short summers with lots of light - only growing season
                    1. Little light in winter
                  2. Adaptations
                    1. Polar flora and fauna
                      1. Glacial regions
                        1. Little life is supported
                          1. Some hardy plants survive
                          2. Tundra regions
                            1. Thick, dense fur
                              1. Extra body fat
                                1. Burrows
                                  1. Pine needles limit water loss
                                    1. Plants grow close to the ground
                                  2. Hot arid flora and fauna
                                    1. Animals store water in fat
                                      1. Animals tend to be nocturnal
                                        1. Insects collect moisture from the air
                                          1. Large ears used to dissipate heat
                                            1. Plants store water
                                              1. Seeds stay dormant for years and produce bright flowers
                                            2. People & extreme environments
                                              1. Polar environment
                                                1. Triple glazing
                                                  1. Fur/wool clothing
                                                    1. Geothermal power
                                                      1. Houses raised above the ground
                                                        1. Roads built on gravel
                                                          1. Hunting for food rather than growing crops
                                                            1. Steep rooftops
                                                            2. Hot arid environment
                                                              1. Walls painted white
                                                                1. Air conditioning
                                                                  1. Thick walls/small windows keep out heat
                                                                    1. Loose-fitting clothes
                                                                      1. Head coverings
                                                                        1. Flat roofs catch water
                                                                          1. Irrigation
                                                                            1. Nomadic herding prevents overgrazing
                                                                          2. Threats
                                                                            1. Pollution
                                                                              1. Alaska - oil spills cause catastrophes
                                                                                1. Sahel - air pollution increases drought
                                                                                2. Land degradation
                                                                                  1. Alaska - permafrost melting
                                                                                    1. Sahel - Desertification
                                                                                    2. Cultural dilution
                                                                                      1. Alaska - loss of native languages
                                                                                        1. Sahel - western influence
                                                                                        2. Out-migration
                                                                                          1. Young people move away for better jobs
                                                                                        3. Sustainable management
                                                                                          1. Hot arid environment
                                                                                            1. Lining wells with concrete
                                                                                              1. Hand pumps
                                                                                                1. Rain barrels
                                                                                                  1. Diguettes in Siguin Vousse
                                                                                                  2. Polar environment
                                                                                                    1. Prevent pollution
                                                                                                      1. Geothermal power
                                                                                                        1. Conservation zones
                                                                                                          1. Promoting ecotourism
                                                                                                            1. Promoting native cultures
                                                                                                          2. Global management
                                                                                                            1. Kyoto protocol 1997
                                                                                                              1. Commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5% by 2012
                                                                                                                1. An agreement between nations to mandate country-by-country reductions in emissons
                                                                                                                  1. Nearly all nations have accepted the treaty apart from the USA and some developing countries
                                                                                                                  2. Antarctic treaty 1961
                                                                                                                    1. Restricts any commercial developments
                                                                                                                    2. UN Convention to Combat Desertification 1994
                                                                                                                      1. Promotes bottom-up solutions
                                                                                                                        1. 195 countries agreed to give part and share information
                                                                                                                          1. Aims to combat land degradation and develop sustainable solutions
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