Development Dilemmas

J_McNally
Mind Map by J_McNally, updated more than 1 year ago
J_McNally
Created by J_McNally over 6 years ago
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Edexcel GCSE Geography B Unit 2

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Development Dilemmas
  1. What is development?
    1. Development is a measurement of how advanced a country is, based upon the standard of living in that country
      1. Development can be measured using economic or social indicators
      2. Factors of development
        1. Economic
          1. Income
            1. Industries
              1. Job security
              2. Physical wellbeing
                1. Diet
                  1. Clean water
                    1. Environment
                    2. Mental wellbeing
                      1. Freedom
                        1. Security
                          1. Happiness
                          2. Social
                            1. Education
                              1. Healthcare
                                1. Leisure facilities
                              2. Economic indicators
                                1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
                                  1. The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year
                                  2. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
                                    1. Adjusts income to take into account the cost of living in that country
                                  3. Political indicators
                                    1. How well governed is the country?
                                      1. Is there corruption?
                                        1. Is there free speech?
                                      2. The development gap
                                        1. Social indicators
                                          1. Human Development Index (HDI)
                                            1. A measure produced yearly by the UN
                                              1. Combined measure of life expectancy, education and GDP per capita
                                                1. High development ≥ 0.8
                                                  1. Medium development = 0.5 - 0.799
                                                    1. Low development < 0.5
                                                    2. Birth rate
                                                      1. No. of people per doctor
                                                        1. Gender equality
                                                          1. Life expectancy
                                                            1. Literacy rate
                                                              1. Infant mortality
                                                              2. North-South divide - most countries in the northern hemisphere are more developed
                                                              3. Development in Malawi
                                                                1. Barriers to development
                                                                  1. HIV/AIDS
                                                                    1. 20% of adults in Malawi have become infected
                                                                      1. Affects people in their 20s and 30s, who are of working age and so economically active
                                                                        1. Those affected become weak and unable to work
                                                                          1. Families cannot afford expensive drugs
                                                                            1. Puts families into poverty
                                                                            2. Landlocked
                                                                              1. They must pay to export goods by train, which is expensive
                                                                                1. Only one, slow, single-track railway line running to the coast
                                                                                  1. Exports
                                                                                    1. Tobacco
                                                                                      1. Sugar
                                                                                        1. Tea
                                                                                        2. Imports
                                                                                          1. Fertiliser
                                                                                            1. Fuel
                                                                                              1. Manufactured goods
                                                                                            2. Trade
                                                                                              1. Malawi is only likely to develop if they increase trade, the WTO helps to do this
                                                                                                1. If Malawi were to increase the value of their product (e.g. by roasting coffee beans) there would be higher tariffs
                                                                                            3. Theories of development
                                                                                              1. Rostow's modernisation theory
                                                                                                1. Traditional society
                                                                                                  1. Pre-conditions for take off
                                                                                                    1. Take off
                                                                                                      1. The drive to maturity
                                                                                                        1. Age of high mass consumption
                                                                                                          1. Consumers enjoy a wide range of goods, societies have a disposable income and choose to invest in the military, education, welfare or luxuries
                                                                                                          2. A period of growth where technology is used throughout the economy and goods are produced for the consumer
                                                                                                          3. Rapid growth of manufacturing industry and new technologies
                                                                                                          4. The shift from farming to manufacturing begins, and trade increases profits which are invested in new industry
                                                                                                          5. Most people are subsistence farmers and produce little surplus product to boost the economy
                                                                                                        2. Dependency theory
                                                                                                          1. The idea that undeveloped countries cannot develop because they are dependent upon the developed countries
                                                                                                        3. Regional disparity (Case study: India)
                                                                                                          1. Core (Maharashtra
                                                                                                            1. Multiplier effect
                                                                                                              1. When core regions get richer as development occurs. Usually started by investment, followed by increased workforce/population, therefore increase in services etc.
                                                                                                              2. Rich and often urban
                                                                                                                1. Big businesses, industries and government have their HQ here
                                                                                                                  1. High concentration of people
                                                                                                                    1. Good services available
                                                                                                                    2. Periphery (Bihar)
                                                                                                                      1. Downwards spiral
                                                                                                                        1. When periphery regions become poorer due to lack of income and people leave
                                                                                                                        2. Poor and often rural
                                                                                                                          1. Often where the core gets its raw materials
                                                                                                                            1. Low income
                                                                                                                              1. Lack of education
                                                                                                                                1. Below poverty line
                                                                                                                              2. Types of development
                                                                                                                                1. Top-down
                                                                                                                                  1. e.g. Sardar Sarovar dam
                                                                                                                                    1. One of the worlds largest dams, aims to provide water (for drinking (3.5 billion litres/day) or irrigation) and power (1450 megawatts/day
                                                                                                                                      1. Positives
                                                                                                                                        1. Environmentally effective
                                                                                                                                          1. Encourages economic development
                                                                                                                                            1. Opens up dry land for farming - feeding a growing population
                                                                                                                                            2. Negatives
                                                                                                                                              1. Locals often lose out
                                                                                                                                                1. Floods villages
                                                                                                                                                  1. Farmland becomes less fertile
                                                                                                                                                    1. Electricity too expensive for many locals
                                                                                                                                                    2. Locals do not get a say
                                                                                                                                                      1. Doesn't provide jobs - uses machinery
                                                                                                                                                        1. Puts the country in debt
                                                                                                                                                    3. Bottom-up
                                                                                                                                                      1. e.g. Biogas plants in India
                                                                                                                                                        1. Positives
                                                                                                                                                          1. Involves local people
                                                                                                                                                            1. Brings communities together
                                                                                                                                                              1. Affordable
                                                                                                                                                                1. Gives locals new skills
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Appropriate technology for the skill level
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Negatives
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Can be expensive, materials cannot be bought in bulk
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Labour intensive
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Little impact on poverty
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