GEOGRAPHY UNIT 2: COASTS

s a n i n
Mind Map by s a n i n, updated more than 1 year ago
s a n i n
Created by s a n i n over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on GEOGRAPHY UNIT 2: COASTS, created by s a n i n on 05/24/2015.
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GEOGRAPHY UNIT 2: COASTS
1 SOFT MANAGEMENT
1.1 BEACH REPLENISHMENT
1.1.1 LOOKS NATURAL
1.1.2 CHEAP
1.1.3 AFFECTS PLANT LIFE
1.1.4 DISRUPTION FROM LORRIES CARRYING SAND
1.2 CLIFF REGARDING
1.2.1 VERY NATURAL
1.2.2 ENCOURAGE VEGETATION GROWTH
1.2.3 MAY HAVE TO DEMOLISH HOUSES ON THE CLIFF
2 HARD MANAGEMENT
2.1 SEA WALL
2.1.1 MADE OF CONCRETE
2.1.2 EXPENSIVE
2.1.3 UNATTRACTIVE; CAN PUT TOURISTS OFF
2.2 RIP RAP
2.2.1 CHEAP
2.2.2 EFFECTIVE FOR YEARS
2.2.3 UNATTRACTIVE
2.2.4 NOT EFFECTIVE IN STORMS
2.3 GABIONS
2.3.1 CHEAP
2.3.2 ABSORB WAVE ENERGY
2.3.3 UNATTRACTIVE
2.3.4 CAGE CAN BREAK; NEEDS TO BE SECURE
3 LONG SHORE DRIFT
4 CASE STUDY; BARTON-ON-SEA
4.1 POPULATION OF 24,000
4.2 2004- 300 METER CLIFF PATH CLOSED- CLIFF SLIPPING
4.2.1 1975- CAFE DEMOLISHED
4.2.2 1975- MANOR LODGE- WORTH £40,000 DEMOLISHED- 20 METERS ON CLIFF EDGE
4.2.3 ROCK GROYNES AND RIP RAP COSYING £1 MILLION- 1970'S
5 CASE STUDY; WALTON-ON-THE-NAZE
5.1 SEASIDE RESORT
5.2 ESSEX COAST
5.3 1977- GROYNES USED TO STOP LONG SHORE DRIFT
5.4 1998- RIP RAP USED TO SLOW DOWN EROSION
5.5 £167,00 FOR 300 TONES OF GRANITE PLACED AROUND TOWER BREAKWATER
6 PREDICTION- MONITOR SEA AND WEATHER CONDITIONS, ASSESSES OF WHEN STORMS ARE MORE LIKELY
7 PREVENTION- DECISIONS MADE ABOUT SEA DEFENCES, BUILDING DESIGNS, WARNINGS TO PEOPLE, REDUCES THE IMPACTS
7.1 CASE STUDY: HAPPISBURGH
7.1.1 850 PEOPLE
7.1.2 VILLAGE IN NORFOLK
7.1.3 CLIMATE CHANGE; RISING SEA LEVELS
7.1.4 'HOLD THE LINE'- 'SEA IS ALLOWED TO COME IN' MANAGED RETREAT
7.1.5 LOSS OF VALUE ON PROPERTY
7.1.6 HOUSE PROPERTY DOWN TO £1
7.1.7 25 PROPERTIES LOST, LIVE BOAT STATION WASHED AWAY
7.1.8 ERODES 40 FT/YEAR
7.1.9 EROSION OF BEACH RD
7.1.10 DEFENCES
7.1.10.1 FOR
7.1.10.1.1 LOCAL RESIDENTS OF BEACH RD- LOSING THEIR HOME
7.1.10.1.2 HAPPISBURGH POST OFFICE OWNER
7.1.10.1.3 LOCAL GP
7.1.10.1.4 RESIDENTS OF HAPPISBURGH
7.1.10.2 AGAINST
7.1.10.2.1 DEFRA SPOKESPERSON ( DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, FOOD AND RURAL AFFAIRS)- MAKE SURE TAX PAYERS MONEY IS USED WISELY
8 WEATHERING
8.1 PHYSICAL
8.1.1 ACTION OF WEATHER ( RAIN OR TEMPERATURE CHANGE)
8.1.1.1 FREEZE THAW; RAIN FALLS INTO CRACKS OF ROCKS, THIS MAY FREEZE AND EXPAND THE ROCK, MAKING IT BREAK OFF ( FROST SHATTERING)
8.2 CHEMICAL
8.2.1 RAIN WATER SLIGHTLY ACIDIC, HUMAN ACTIVITY CREATES POLLUTANTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE, MAKING RAIN WATER ACIDIC. ROCKS ERODE IN ACID RAIN
8.3 BIOLOGICAL
8.3.1 GROWTH OF ROOTS AND ANIMALS, ACTIVITY ALSO AIDS THE BREAK UP OF ROCKS
9 EROSION
9.1 ATTRITION
9.1.1 ROCK FRAGMENTS GRIND AGAINST EACH OTHER, TURNING INTO SMALL, SMOOTH PEBBLES WHICH ARE LATER DEPOSITED AT BEACHES
9.2 CORROSION
9.2.1 CHEMICAL ACTION OF SEA ON ROCK, LIMESTONE DISSOLVES IN WATER, SOME SEA SALTS REACT WITH ROCKS AND CAUSES THEM TO ROT
9.3 CORRASION (ABRASION)
9.3.1 CAUSED BY BROKEN ROCK FRAGMENTS, BATTERING THE LAND, E.G. CLIFFS, BREAKING OFF MORE ROCK PIECES
9.4 HYDRAULIC ACTION
9.4.1 SEA WATER CRASHES AGAINST LAND, AIR AND WATER IS TRAPPED/COMPRESSED IN THE ROCK CRACK. THE SEA MOVES AWAY AGAIN, AIR EXPANDS, WEAKENING ROCKS, ENLARGING CRACKS AND BREAKING PIECES OFF
10 COASTAL RECESSION
10.1 WAVE POWER
10.1.1 IF THE FETCH IS LONGER, THE STRONGER THE WIOND AND THE MORE POWERFUL THE WAVE
10.2 GEOLOGY
10.2.1 IF THE ROCKS ARE HARD, LESS LIKELY OF EROSION. LIMESTONE WILL ERODE QUICKLY, WAVES EXPLOIT LINES OF WEAKNESS
10.3 MANAGEMENT
10.3.1 OLD MANAGEMENT ISN'T EFFECTIVE AS NEW MANAGEMENT, SOME AREN'T UPDATED BECAUSE THE COUNCIL DO NOT THINK THE COAST IS WORTH SAVING
10.4 FETCH
10.4.1 LONGER FETCH CREATES POWERFUL WAVES - CREATING DESTRUCTIVE WAVES
11 HEADLAND EROSION
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