Memory Multi-Store Model

Mind Map by c.hodgson1504, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by c.hodgson1504 over 6 years ago


Spider diagram on multi store explanation of memory, psychology.

Resource summary

Memory Multi-Store Model
  1. Multi-Store Model
    1. The flow of information in the memory
      1. Encoding - Storage - Retrieval
        1. Sensory Store - Short-term memory - Long-term memory
        2. The 3 stores
          1. Sensory memory
            1. Information arrives at our senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell). This is briefly held in our sensory store. It only stays for a short period of time.
            2. Sort term memory
              1. Can hold 7+/- 2 pieces of information
                1. New information pushes out old information. Also if you don't rehearse the information, it will probably be forgotten within a few minutes.
                2. Long term memory
                  1. This store is very large and the information can stay in there indefinately.
              2. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
                1. They thought that information passes through a series of memory stores and each of these stores has different characteristics.
                  1. The duration ad capacity of each memory store.
                    1. Sensory - lasts less than one second - the capacity is very limited
                      1. Short-term - lasts less than 1 minute - can hold between 5-9 chunks of information.
                        1. Long-term - has a duration of a lifetime - the capacity is unlimited.
                    2. Research Studies
                      1. Peterson and Peterson (1959)
                        1. Their aim was to see if rehearsal was necessary to hold information in the short-term store.
                          1. Their method was to give participants a set of three letters to remember (hjd, ywo) but were immediately asked to count back in threes out loud. this was done to prevent rehearsal. Participants were then asked to recall their letters in the correct order.
                            1. They found that participants had forgotten all of the information after 18 seconds.
                              1. They concluded that we cannot hold information in our short-term store unless we can rehearse it.
                            2. Murdock (1962)
                              1. His aim was to provide evidence to support the multi-store model
                                1. His method was that participants had to learn a list of words presented one at a time, for two seconds per word, and then recall them in any order.
                                  1. He found that the words at the end of the list were recalled first. Words at the beginning were also recalled quite well, but the middle words were not recalled very well.
                                    1. Words recalled from the end of the list is known as the recency effect.
                                      1. Words recalled from the beginning is known as the primary effect.
                                        1. Murdock concluded that this provides evidence for separate short and long-term stores.
                                    2. Practical Implications
                                      1. The capacity of the STM is 7 chunks of information. Car number plates and postcodes never have above 7 digits in them.
                                      2. Key terms
                                        1. Encoding
                                          1. Changing information so it can be stored.
                                          2. Regency effect
                                            1. Information received later is recalled better than earlier information.
                                            2. Primary effect
                                              1. The first information received is recalled better than subsequent information.
                                              2. Storage
                                                1. Holding information in the memory system.
                                                2. Retrieval
                                                  1. Recovering information from storage.
                                                  2. Short-Term store
                                                    1. Holds approximately seven chunks of information for a limited amount of time.
                                                    2. Long-Term Store
                                                      1. Holds a vast amount of information for a very long period of time.
                                                      2. Sensory Store
                                                        1. Holds information received from the senses for a very short period of time.
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