Nervous System Disorders

Judy  Thomas
Mind Map by Judy Thomas, updated more than 1 year ago
Judy  Thomas
Created by Judy Thomas over 6 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Nervous System Disorders, created by Judy Thomas on 05/27/2015.

Resource summary

Nervous System Disorders
  1. Trauma
    1. Pattern of injury (e.g.coup/contrecoup), signs & symptoms depend on region and between which meninges
      1. Bleeding/swelling may increase intracranial pressure (if brainstem damaged/coning - coma)
        1. Concussion (brief LOC, full recovery)
          1. Contusion (bruising, full recovery may not occur)
            1. Laceration (tear of axons & blood vessels)
              1. Signs of increased intracranial pressure?
          2. Degeneration
            1. Alzheimer's
              1. Degeneration of cholinergic neurons in hippocampus, amygdala, frontal lobe
                1. Pathophys: plaques & tangles
                  1. Affects: Memory, reasoning, personality, ADL
              2. Parkinson's
                1. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra
                  1. Pathophys? Lewy bodies?
                    1. Affects basal ganglia function: Tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia etc.
              3. Environmental/Chemical Insult
                1. Lead poisoning
                  1. Kernicterus
                    1. Elevated unconjugated bilirubin crosses BBB
                      1. Premature babies have immature liver & BBB
                        1. Brain toxicity
                  2. Genetic
                    1. Huntington's
                      1. Autosomal dominant
                        1. Loss of basal ganglia neurons
                          1. Choreiform movements, later cognition (presents 20-50y)
                    2. Auto-Immune
                      1. Multiple Sclerosis
                        1. Progressive demyelination
                          1. Affects: motor, sensory, visual, cognitive
                      2. Altered neurotransmitter activity
                        1. Unipolar depression
                          1. Causes: biological, psychological, social, neurotransmitter
                            1. Low serotonin/adrenaline activity?
                          2. Bipolar
                            1. Cycling of depression then mania
                              1. Dopamine or glutamate dysfunction?
                            2. Schizophrenia
                              1. Psychosis - positive & negative symptoms
                                1. Dopamine dysfunction mesolimbic & mesocortical paths
                              2. Epilepsy
                                1. Types: tonic/clonic, petit mal, temporal lobe
                                  1. Uncontrolled firing of group of neurons
                                    1. Due to hypersensitivity of neurons/low GABA?
                              3. Cerebrovascular accident
                                1. Ischemic stroke
                                  1. Interruption in blood supply (e.g. thrombus, embolus, air, tumour), most strokes
                                    1. underlying cause often atherosclerotic disease, so same risk factors
                                      1. Signs - depend on area of brain affected
                                  2. Haemorrhagic stroke
                                    1. Bleeding in the brain or between meninges
                                      1. underlying cause may be trauma, aneurysm or tumor
                                        1. Signs & symptoms same as ischemic but also signs of increased intracranial pressure
                                          1. Aneurysm
                                            1. abnormal dilation and weakening of blood vessel wall
                                              1. Cause? Atheroma, high BP, genetic
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