Language & Gender

anna.swainson
Mind Map by anna.swainson, updated more than 1 year ago
anna.swainson
Created by anna.swainson over 6 years ago
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Everything you need to revise Language & Gander for AS English Language.

Resource summary

Language & Gender
  1. 3 Key Theories
    1. Difference Theory
      1. Deborah Tannen
        1. Begins at childhood when parents use more verbs with boys and more emotive language with girls
          1. 'Cross-cultural communication'
            1. DIFFERENCES
              1. Advice vs Understanding
                1. Status vs Support
                  1. Independence vs Intimacy
                    1. Information vs Feeling
                      1. Orders vs Proposals
                        1. Conflict vs Compromise
                  2. MEN & WOMEN CONVERSE DIFFERENTLY
                  3. Dominance Theory
                    1. WOMEN'S LANGUAGE IS THE RESULT OF SUBORDINATION
                      1. Robin Lakoff
                        1. Combined elements of dominance and deficit
                          1. Claims women...
                            1. hedge more
                              1. use super polite forms
                                1. complying to grammatical rules
                                2. use more prosodic features
                                  1. use more empty adjectives
                                    1. use more modal verbs
                                      1. overuse qualifiers (I think that...)
                                        1. use more minimal responses
                                          1. avoid expletives
                                          2. Believed women used these features because they were uncertain, non-committal and didn't want to impose their views
                                            1. Women's language features show their inferior social status
                                              1. Comes from living in a patriarchal society
                                                1. Weak compared to men's so stops them being taken seriously
                                          3. Zimmerman & West
                                            1. 96% of interruptions are by men
                                          4. Deficit Theory
                                            1. WOMEN'S LANGUAGE IS ASSUMED TO BE WEAK
                                              1. O'Barr & Atkins
                                                1. Found witnesses of both genders had the same language features when in court
                                                  1. More to do with feeling powerless than gender
                                            2. Sexism
                                              1. Julia Stanley
                                                1. 220 derogatory terms for women & only 20 for men
                                                  1. Society has become ANDROCENTRIC
                                                    1. Built-in bias towards men due to a patriarchal society
                                                2. Some argue sexism is just a reflection of how society is
                                                  1. Some people have sexist attitudes therefore there is sexist language
                                                    1. Others argue the existence of sexist language helps create sexist attitudes
                                                      1. Reducing the use of sexist language will improve the perception of women in society
                                                    2. Lexical Asymmetry
                                                      1. Male & female equivalents of words are often unequal in their connotations
                                                        1. Marked/Unmarked Terms
                                                          1. Added suffix of '-ess' or '-ette' to the male term
                                                            1. Now less common - sign of change in attitudes
                                                            2. Suggests male position is higher or more important as it is unchanged
                                                            3. e.g. 'spinster' and 'bachelor'
                                                              1. SAME DENOTATION, DIFFERENT CONNOTATIONS
                                                          2. Patronising Terms
                                                            1. Several compare women to food
                                                              1. e.g. 'tart', 'sweetie', 'honey'
                                                                1. Suggests that a woman is there to be desired and consumed by men
                                                              2. Female Inanimate
                                                                1. Referring to objects as 'she/her'
                                                                  1. Can be affectionate
                                                                    1. Can imply male ownership
                                                                2. Man & Mankind
                                                                  1. Man sometimes refers specifically to males
                                                                    1. And can be used generically to reference the whole human race
                                                                      1. Mankind is always generic
                                                                        1. Criticised as they imply men are the most important
                                                                          1. 'Humankind' is becoming more common
                                                                  2. Prestige
                                                                    1. Overt
                                                                      1. Greater use of SE or RP to appear respectable
                                                                        1. Sought by women
                                                                          1. Perhaps to combat their inferior position or to meet behavioural standards
                                                                      2. Covert
                                                                        1. Use of more non-SE to seem rebellious
                                                                          1. Sought by men
                                                                            1. Already have a higher status or to seem down to earth/traditionally masculine
                                                                      3. SEE LANGUAGE & POWER FOR EXAM TECHNIQUE
                                                                        1. Some changes to context in the intro but otherwise identical
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