Psychology research method


Sujin Jung psychology research method mind map
Sujin Jung
Mind Map by Sujin Jung, updated more than 1 year ago
Sujin Jung
Created by Sujin Jung over 8 years ago

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Psychology research method
  1. Variables
    1. Extraneous
      1. All variables, which are not the independent variable, but could affect the results (e.g. dependent variable) of the experiment.
      2. Dependent
        1. The variable which you measure
        2. Independent
          1. The variable which you change
        3. Design used in experiments
          1. Independent measures
            1. Description
              1. Different participants are used in each condition of the independent variable. This means that each condition of the experiment includes a different group of participants. This should be done by random allocation, which ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to one group or the other.
              2. Evaluation
                1. Strength : Avoids order effects (such as practice or fatigue) as people participate in one condition only. If a person is involved in several conditions they may become bored, tired and fed up by the time they come to the second condition, or becoming wise to the requirements of the experiment!
                  1. Limitation : More people are needed than with the repeated measures design (i.e. more time consuming).
                2. Repeated measures
                  1. Description
                    1. The same participants take part in each condition of the independent variable. This means that each condition of the experiment includes the same group of participants.
                    2. Evaluation
                      1. Strength : Fewer people are needed as they take part in all conditions (i.e. saves time)
                        1. Limitation : There may be order effects. Order effects refer to the order of the conditions having an effect on the participants’ behavior. Performance in the second condition may be better because the participants know what to do (i.e. practice effect). Or their performance might be worse in the second condition because they are tired (i.e. fatigue effect).
                      2. Matched pairs
                        1. Description
                          1. One pair must be randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group.
                          2. Evaluation
                            1. Strengths : Avoids order effects, and so counterbalancing is not necessary.
                              1. Limitation : Impossible to match people exactly, unless identical twins!
                          3. Laboratory experiment
                            1. Description
                              1. The researcher decides where the experiment will take place, at what time, with which participants, in what circumstances and using a standardised procedure. Participants are randomly allocated to each independent variable group.
                              2. Evaluation
                                1. Strength : It is easier to replicate (i.e. copy) a laboratory experiment. This is because a standardised procedure is used.
                                  1. Limitation : The artificiality of the setting may produce unnatural behavior that does not reflect real life, i.e. low ecological validity. This means it would not be possible to generalize the findings to a real life setting.
                                2. Field experiment
                                  1. Description
                                    1. Field experiments are done in the everyday (i.e. real life) environment of the participants. The experimenter still manipulates the independent variable, but in a real-life setting (so cannot really control extraneous variables).
                                    2. Evaluation
                                      1. Strength : Behavior in a field experiment is more likely to reflect life real because of its natural setting, i.e. higher ecological validity than a lab experiment.
                                        1. Limitation : There is less control over extraneous variables that might bias the results. This makes it difficult for another researcher to replicate the study in exactly the same way.
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