Health

Taran Sahota
Mind Map by Taran Sahota, updated more than 1 year ago
Taran Sahota
Created by Taran Sahota over 6 years ago
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A2 Health Psychology OCR

Resource summary

Health
  1. Dysfuntional Behaviour
    1. Treatments
      1. Behavioural - McGrath
        1. Treatment of a noise phobia using systematic desensitisation
        2. Biological - Kane
          1. Treating schizophrenic patients with Fluphenazine
          2. Cognitive - Beck et al
            1. Comparing cognitive treatment to dug therapy (cognitive treatment was more effective)
          3. Explanations
            1. Cognitive - Beck et al
              1. Cognitive distortion in patients with depression
              2. Biological- Gottesman & Shields
                1. Adoption and twin studies into schizophrenia
                2. Behavioural - Watson & Rayner
                  1. Inducing fear through classical conditioning (Little Albert Study)
                3. Diagnosis
                  1. DSM/ICD
                    1. Catagorising dysfunctional behaviourso that professionals are able to diagnose disorders appropriately and give the correct treatment
                      1. DSM- Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Health ICD - International Classification of\Diseases & Related Health Problems
                    2. Definitions - Rosenhan & Seligman
                      1. STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY - Behaviour that is not seen very often in society
                        1. DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS - If society doen't approve of a behaviour it is considered dysfunctional
                          1. DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH - (Johoda) Have a positive view on yourself - Be capable of some personal growth - Be independent and self-regulating - Have an accurate view of reality - Be resistant to stress - Be able to adapt to your environment
                            1. FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY - If a person is not functioning in a way that enables them to live independently in society they they are considered dysfunctional
                      2. Sex Bias - Ford & Widiger
                        1. AIM: To find out if clinicians were stereotyping genders when diagnosing disorders
                          1. METHODOLOGY: Self-report where practitioner is given a scenario and has to give diagnosis. IV - Gender of patient in scenario DV - Diagnosis made by clinician
                            1. PARTICIPANTS: 354 clinical psychologists from 1127 randomly selected from National Register
                    3. Stress
                      1. Causes
                        1. Workplace - Johansson
                          1. Workplace stressors can produces varying degrees of stress i.e. work-load, pace of the work or role conflict
                          2. Hassles & Life events - Kanner
                            1. Effect of life event on hasseles and uplifts in the p's life i.e. death of close one
                            2. Lack of Control - Geer & Maisel
                              1. Lack of control over given situation. More control = less stressful If perceived control or actual control can reduce stress
                            3. Measuring
                              1. Combined - Johansson
                                1. Physiological - Urine sample (adrenaline levels) Self-report - mood and alertness Quasi-experiment - IV was their job
                                2. Physiological - Geer & Maisel
                                  1. Galvanic Skin Response Ability to control stimulus (photo of crash victim) reduces stress
                                  2. Self report - Holmes & Rahe
                                    1. Given self-repot
                                  3. Managing
                                    1. Cognitive - Meichenbaum
                                      1. SIT (compared to systematic desensitisation & a control) P's are taught positive statements and relaxation methods
                                      2. Social - Waxler-Morrison
                                        1. Relationship between social relations and survival of breast cancer Employment and marriage were significant
                                        2. Behavioural - Budzynski
                                          1. Biofeedback - P's learn relaxation technique and get EMG feedback (muscle tension)
                                      3. Healthy Living
                                        1. Health Campaigns
                                          1. Fear Arousal - Janis & Feshbeck
                                            1. consequences on emotions and fear appeals in communication
                                            2. Legislation - Dannenberg
                                              1. AIM: To review the impact of the passing of a law requiring cycle helmet wearing in children
                                                1. METHODOLOGY: Natural experiment
                                              2. Media Campaign - Cowpe
                                                1. AIM: to test the effectiveness of an advertising campaign informing people how to deal with chip-pan fires )
                                                  1. METHODOLOGY: Quasi experiment (I.V where people live)
                                                    1. PARTICIPANTS: People living in the television areas
                                                      1. PROCEDURE: Campaigns were shown on T.V. Two 60 second adverts were shown. The adverts were show once but three areas (Granada, Harlech & Tyne Tees) were show reminders a year later.
                                                        1. FINDINGS: The net decline in each are was between 7% and 25%. Largest reduction was in Tyne Tees of 33% during campaign, then 17% then 15% Seemed that ad had less impact if seen more than once. Questionnaire showed awareness was 62% before ads and then 90-96% after campaign (in Yorkshire)
                                                          1. CONCLUSION: The campaign proved effective as shown by the reduction in chip-pan fres. Behaviour change is seen most during the capaign
                                              3. Theories of Health Belief
                                                1. Health Belief Model - Becker
                                                  1. Mothers adherence to a drug regime for their asthmatic children
                                                  2. Locus of Control - Rotter
                                                    1. P's who feel they have control over situation are more likely to show coping bahaviour
                                                    2. Self-efficacy - Bandura
                                                      1. Self-efficacy of patients undergoing systematic desensitisation in relation to a phobia i.e snake
                                                    3. Adherence
                                                      1. Hypertensive Patients - Bullpit
                                                        1. Review research on adherence in hypertensive patients - adhere if benefit outweighs cost
                                                        2. Fluoxentine for Depression - Lustman
                                                          1. Efficacy of treatment for depression in diabetics
                                                          2. Improving adherence - Watt et al
                                                            1. Using a Funhaler can improve children adherence to asthma medication
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