Forensic

Taran Sahota
Mind Map by Taran Sahota, updated more than 1 year ago
Taran Sahota
Created by Taran Sahota over 6 years ago
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A2 Forensic Psychology OCR

Resource summary

Forensic
  1. Turning to Crime
    1. Upbringing
      1. Disrupted Families - Farrington
        1. Delinquency rates in boys living in permanently disrupted families No mother-higher delinquency rate
        2. Learning from Others - Akers
          1. Self-report on adolescent drinking/drug behaviour Peer influence - provide social reinforcement for behaviour
          2. Poverty & Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods - Wikstom & Tajfel
            1. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study
              1. SAMPLE: Nearly 2000 Year 10 students
                1. METHODOLOGY: Interview & data collection
                  1. FINDINGS: 44.8% of males and 30.6% of females committed at least one of the studied crimes Offenders of violent crime likely to be victim of violent crime KEY FACTORS ARE - weak family, poor parental monitoring and truancy poor self-control and weak morality
                    1. CONCLUSIONS: 1-Propensity-Induced, its a personality or characteristic 2-Lifestyle-dependent, peer centered activities high alcohol and drug uses 3-Situationaly-limited, well adjusted but offend if high levels of risk
          3. Biological
            1. Brain Dysfunction - Raine
              1. Criminals has less activity in pre-frontal cortex-impulsive behaviour, and in amygdala-emotional response i.e. fear
              2. Genes & Serotonin - Brunner
                1. Extreme violence in a family. Mutated MAOA breaks down dopamine, serotonin & noradrenalin=increased aggressive behaviour
                2. Gender - Daly & Wilson
                  1. Evolutionary - Male risk taking to impress female mate- survival value
                3. Cognitive
                  1. Criminal Thinking Patters - Yochelson & Samenow
                    1. Longitudial study. Series of interviews carried out. behaviours- restless, lack empathy, want life of excitement poor at decision making
                    2. Moral Development - Kohlberg
                      1. Moral development in children. Suggests that criminals have lesser developed morals - that's why they commit crime
                      2. Social Cognition - Gudjohnsson
                        1. Attribution of blame. External-behaviour blamed on social factors. Mental-behavoiur blamed on mental disposition at the time. Remorse- shows guilt/remorse about the behaviour
                    3. Reaching a verdict
                      1. Persuading a Jury
                        1. Order of testimony - Pennington & Hastie
                          1. Evidence being ruled inadmissable - Pickel
                            1. Persuasion - Cutler
                            2. Reaching a Verdict
                              1. Minority Influence - Moscovici
                                1. minorities can influence a majority if they are consistent
                                2. Majority Influence - Asch
                                  1. Stages & Influences - Hastie
                                  2. Witness Apeall
                                    1. Atractiveness of Defendant - Castellow
                                      1. Video or screen for child - Ross et al
                                        1. Wintess Confidence - Penrod & Cutler
                                      2. Making a case
                                        1. Offender profiling
                                          1. Topdown Approach - Canter
                                            1. Identifying behavioural pattern from similarities between offences. It can lead to understanding of how offenders behaviour can change
                                            2. John Duffy - Canter
                                              1. First attempt to use behavioural characteristic
                                              2. Bottoms up - Hazelwood & Douglas
                                                1. Organised and disorganised ofenders
                                              3. Interviewing witness
                                                1. Weapon Focus - Loftus
                                                  1. 36 American uni students. Effect of presence of a weapon when recognising face. 38.9% correct (no weapon) 11.1% correct (weapon)
                                                    1. second experiment carried out supported these findings
                                                  2. Recognising Faces - Bruce et al
                                                    1. 48 Uni students Compared internal and external features when trying to remember
                                                    2. Cognitive Interview - Fisher
                                                      1. 16 detectives from Florida trained in cognitive interview techniques 47% more info than before training
                                                    3. Interviewing Suspect
                                                      1. Interrogation Techniques - Inbau
                                                        1. Presenting a mass on damaging facts to persuade criminals they have no choice but to confess
                                                        2. False Confessions - Gudjonsson
                                                          1. Case study of false confession of a youth whom was susceptible to interrogative pressure
                                                          2. Detecting Lies - Mann at al
                                                            1. 99 Kent police officers. Asked to judge truthfulness of suspects in 54 police videos
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