The Three Approaches To An Argument

Josh Dean
Mind Map by Josh Dean, updated more than 1 year ago
Josh Dean
Created by Josh Dean over 6 years ago
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A how to on arguing

Resource summary

The Three Approaches To An Argument
  1. The Classical Approach
    1. 1-Introduction
      1. Get peoples attention
        1. I at least want them to hear me out
        2. 2-Statement of fact
          1. Talk about the issue
            1. Give your knowledge of the situation
            2. 4-Proposition
              1. Propose your solution
                1. Show evidence that supports your case
                2. 3-Refutation
                  1. Summarize your apponent's arggument
                    1. Point out flaw's
                    2. 5-Substantiation and Proof
                      1. Make your own case using ethos, pathos and logos
                        1. Use good evidence
                        2. 6-Conclusion
                          1. Summarize your most important points
                            1. Try to appeal to peoples feelings
                          2. The Toulmin Approach
                            1. 1-Claim
                              1. Propose your statement
                                1. Show your information
                                2. 2-Grounds
                                  1. Give your hardest facts
                                    1. Give your reasoning for your claim
                                    2. 3-Warrent
                                      1. Give data to legitimize your claim
                                        1. It answers the question 'Why does that data mean your claim is true?'
                                        2. 4-Backing
                                          1. Additional support for your Warrent
                                            1. Answer different questions
                                            2. 5-Qualifier
                                              1. the strength of the leap from the data to the warrant
                                                1. include words such as 'most', 'usually', 'always' or 'sometimes'
                                                2. 6-Rebuttal
                                                  1. Counter argument as much as ppossible
                                                    1. These may be rebutted either through a continued dialogue, or by pre-empting the counter-argument
                                                  2. The Rogerian Approach
                                                    1. 1-An introduction
                                                      1. Explain your problem
                                                      2. 2-A neutral, non-judgmental statement of the opponent's position
                                                        1. presented within valid contexts, that demonstrates the writer clearly understands it
                                                        2. 3-A neutral statement and explanation
                                                          1. Explain your position and why it's valid
                                                          2. 4-An analysis
                                                            1. Analysis what the two positions have in common and what goals and values they share
                                                            2. 5-A proposal
                                                              1. State your proposal that solves the problem and interest both parties
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