Major Structures of the Brain

lynda_ashford_25
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Behavioural Neuroscience Mind Map on Major Structures of the Brain, created by lynda_ashford_25 on 10/21/2013.

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lynda_ashford_25
Created by lynda_ashford_25 almost 6 years ago
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Major Structures of the Brain
1 Hindbrain- posterior part of the brain. Certain structures constitute the brainstem.
1.1 Medulla- controls vital reflexes through the cranial nerves.
1.1.1 Damage is fatal
1.2 Pons- contains nuclei for several cranial nerves. Known as a bridge as the axons from one side of the brain crosses to the other in the spinal cord via the pons.
1.3 Cerebellum- a large hindbrain structure. Contributes to controlling of movements.
1.3.1 Damage leads to problems shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli
2 Midbrain- middle of the brain. The roof of this section is known as the tectum.
2.1 Superior/inferior colliculus- swellings on each side of the tectum. Important for sensory processing.
2.1.1 Superior- visual processing
2.1.2 Inferior- sensory processing
2.2 Tegmentum- under the tectum and is the intermediate level of the midbrain. Includes the nuclei for the third and fourth cranial nerves.
2.3 Substantia nigra- gives rise to a dopamine containing pathway that facilitates readiness for movement.
3 Forebrain- most prominent part of the brain that consists of two hemispheres that receive information and control muscles on the contralateral side
3.1 Cerebral cortex- outer portion which contains strucutres such as the thalamus, basal ganglia and the limbic system.
3.1.1 Limbic system- forms the border around the brainstem. Includes olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.
3.1.1.1 Hypothalamus- conveys messages to the pituitary gland altering it's release of hormones.
3.1.1.1.1 Damage leads to abnormalities in motivated behaviours
3.1.1.1.2 Pituitary gland- endocrine (hormone producing) gland at the base of the hypothalamus.
3.1.1.2 Hippocampus- stores certain kinds of memories (especially individual memories)
3.1.1.2.1 Damage leads to troubles storing new memories. Do not lose previous memories.
3.1.2 Thalamus- main source of input to the cerebral cortex. Most sensory information goes first into the thalamus where it is processed and sends cerebral output.
3.1.3 Basal ganglia- group of subcortical structures including the caudate nucles, putamen and globus pallidus. Are critical for movement, learning and remembering.
3.1.3.1 Damage can lead to Parkinson's disease

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