LECTURE 17

Hoa Truong
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Hoa Truong
Created by Hoa Truong over 6 years ago
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Description

SEAL

Resource summary

LECTURE 17
  1. PETROLEUM SYSTEM
    1. Elements
      1. Source rock
        1. reservoir rock
          1. SEAL rock
            1. prevent migrate of H/C through reservoir + force H/C accum. in trap
              1. low permeability, non-porous, small pore throats - trap H/C
                1. Types
                  1. Fine-grained rocks
                    1. siltstones, shales, mudstones
                      1. cappillary seal (completely seal)
                        1. susceptible to breaching by fracturing
                          1. may be source rocks as well as seal rocks
                          2. Clay smear/fault gouge in fault zone
                            1. capillary seal
                              1. may provide fault seals
                              2. Evaporites
                                1. non-permeable
                                  1. self-sealing (ductility) - high sealing integrity
                                2. Modes
                                  1. cap seals
                                    1. Potential depends
                                      1. Capacity
                                        1. max. capillary pressure/ column height
                                          1. displacement pressure
                                            1. pressure required to form a filament of mercury through pore space
                                            2. Capillary pressure vs. buoyancy
                                              1. capillary increase-column height increase-buoyancy increase at top of reservoir-H/C invade seal through large pore where cap. pressure is lower
                                                1. upward migrate H/C driven by buoyancy (density difference betw. fluids) oppose cap.pressure
                                                  1. Migration change depth+shape reservoir
                                                    1. Buoyancy press. > displacement press - seal leak
                                                  2. geometry (seal closure)
                                                    1. thickness + areal extend
                                                    2. Seal intergrity
                                                      1. Mechanical properties, lithological+ structural homogeneity, ductility
                                                  3. fault seals
                                                    1. Types
                                                      1. Damage
                                                        1. processes (grain crushing)- membrane seal (limestone)
                                                          1. sand:sand windows across fault due
                                                            1. shale gouge
                                                              1. ductile shale beds either side of fault entrained in fault zone
                                                              2. cataclasis
                                                                1. grains breaks+crushes -fine grained gouges -loss pores
                                                                2. cementation
                                                                  1. fluid flow along once permeable fault
                                                              3. Juxtaposition
                                                                1. fault juxtaposes sealing rock again reservoir rock- juxtaposition fault seal
                                                                  1. sand:sand high risk, sand:seal low risk
                                                                  2. Reactivation
                                                                    1. fault reactivate after trap charged-high risk H/C migrate along active fault zone
                                                                      1. stick-slip-stick
                                                                        1. fault seal valving with periodic pore pressure rise then fluid release
                                                                  3. Quality
                                                                    1. Good (perfect)- capillary seal
                                                                      1. Poor- rate seal
                                                                    2. Overburden rock
                                                                    3. Processes
                                                                      1. trap formation
                                                                        1. H/C migration
                                                                          1. H/C accum..
                                                                            1. trap&H/C preservation
                                                                              1. H/C generation
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