LECTURE 12

Hoa Truong
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Hoa Truong
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Lecture 12 - Deformation of rock

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LECTURE 12
1 DEFORMATION OF ROCKS
1.1 respondsible: Earth's landscape, sub-surface structures that host petroleum accum.
1.2 2 main types
1.2.1 Brittle
1.2.1.1 rock break by fracturing
1.2.1.2 transition zone: 10-15km depth
1.2.2 Ductile
1.2.2.1 rock deform by flow&fold
1.2.2.2 transition zone: 10-15km depth
1.3 Caused by
1.3.1 Stress
1.3.1.1 Compression
1.3.1.1.1 squeeze- thick material
1.3.1.2 Extension
1.3.1.2.1 pull apart- thin material
1.3.1.3 Shear
1.3.1.3.1 blocks of rock slide pass one another - thin/thick material
1.3.1.4 force applied across an area
1.4 Creates geological structures
1.4.1 Joints
1.4.2 Faults
1.4.2.1 Strike-slip
1.4.2.1.1 fault motion parallel fault strike
1.4.2.1.1.1 Right lateral
1.4.2.1.1.2 left lateral
1.4.2.2 brittle structure
1.4.2.2.1 result in shatter/crushed rocks
1.4.2.2.1.1 Fault breccias
1.4.2.2.1.1.1 fault zone: broken rock fragments
1.4.2.2.1.2 Slickensides
1.4.2.2.1.2.1 surface polished by fault motion
1.4.2.3 Planar fractures offset by movement across the break. active/inactive. caused of earthquake
1.4.2.4 Direction of fault: dominant type of crustal stress & type of fault
1.4.2.5 orientation
1.4.2.5.1 Hangingwal
1.4.2.5.1.1 above block
1.4.2.5.2 Foot wall
1.4.2.5.2.1 below block
1.4.2.6 dip-slip faults
1.4.2.6.1 Reserse
1.4.2.6.1.1 Thrust
1.4.2.6.1.1.1 special type of reverse fault
1.4.2.6.1.1.1.1 fault dip <35degree
1.4.2.6.1.2 hanging wall move up
1.4.2.6.1.3 help crustal compression
1.4.2.6.2 Normal
1.4.2.6.2.1 hanging wall move down
1.4.2.6.2.2 help crustal extension (pull apart)
1.4.2.6.3 depend on relative motion
1.4.3 Folds
1.4.3.1 Syncline
1.4.3.1.1 Trough-like fold, limbs dip toward hinge
1.4.3.2 Anticline
1.4.3.2.1 arch-like fold, limb dip away from hinge
1.4.3.3 ductile structure
1.4.3.4 variety shape, size, geometry
1.4.3.5 features
1.4.3.5.1 Hinge
1.4.3.5.1.1 portion of max. curvation on fold
1.4.3.5.2 Limb
1.4.3.5.2.1 less-curved sides of fold
1.4.3.5.3 Axial plane
1.4.3.5.3.1 imaginary surface defined by connect hinges of successive folds
1.4.3.6 fault train
1.4.3.6.1 series of anticline & syncline alternate
1.4.4 3D orientation is decribed by
1.4.4.1 Strike
1.4.4.1.1 horizontal intersection with a tilted surfacce
1.4.4.2 Dip
1.4.4.2.1 angle of surface down from horizontal
1.4.4.2.2 perpendicular to strike
1.5 Tectonic foliation
1.5.1 stress compression structure
1.5.2 Flattening
1.5.2.1 perpendicular to shorten strain
1.5.2.2 sand grains flatten + elongate - clay re-orientate
1.5.3 parallel fold axial plane
1.6 Uplift
1.6.1 constructs mountain
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