Riva Kapoor
Mind Map by Riva Kapoor, updated more than 1 year ago
Riva Kapoor
Created by Riva Kapoor over 6 years ago



Resource summary

  1. Kidney Failure
    1. Dialysis
      1. The filtering of blood using an artificial kidney machine.
        1. Removes urea and other waste.
        2. Expensive and time-consuming
        3. Transplant
          1. Transplants can be rejected and medication must be taken for the rest of your life to prevent the transplant being rejected.
            1. Requires surgery and associated risks
              1. A precise donor is needed
            2. The Nephron
              1. Ultrafiltration
                1. High pressure forces fluid from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus and into the space in the middle of the Bowman's capsule.
                  1. Does not pass through
                    1. Proteins
                      1. Blood cells
                    2. Pass through
                      1. Water
                        1. Glucose
                          1. Salt
                            1. Urea
                              1. Glomerular Filtrate
                  2. Selective Reabsorption
                    1. These molecules are taken into the body during digestion.
                      1. Digestion
                        1. Mechanical digestion
                          1. Chewing of food into smaller pieces - aids persitalsis
                          2. Chemical Digestion
                            1. The breaking down of food into smaller molecules that can be used by the cells in respiration.
                        2. Takes the the useful substances for the body from the tubules and places them back into the blood filled capillaries.
                          1. Diffusion
                            1. Osmosis
                              1. Transport of Molecules
                              2. Active transport
                              3. Glucose
                                1. Amino Acids
                                  1. Some water
                                    1. Some salt
                                      1. Occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule
                                      2. Osmoregulation
                                        1. Controlled by ADH
                                          1. Too little water in body
                                            1. High ADH levels
                                              1. Walls of the collecting duct more permeable
                                                1. Small volume of urine
                                                  1. Concentrated urine
                                            2. Too much water in body
                                              1. Low ADH levels
                                                1. Walls of the collecting duct less permeable
                                                  1. Large volume of urine
                                                    1. Dilute Urine
                                              2. Secreted from pituitary gland
                                                1. Released from a gland
                                                  1. Hormone
                                                    1. Released into bloodstream and transported around the body
                                                      1. Circulation
                                                      2. Chemical messenger
                                                        1. Slower and longer lasting than nervous reactions
                                                          1. Nervous System
                                                  2. Occurs in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
                                                    1. Reabsorbs water into the blood to ensure that the correct balance is maitainedinside the body
                                                      1. Homeostasis
                                                        1. Thermoregulation
                                                          1. Too Cold
                                                            1. Body hairs rise
                                                              1. Vasoconstriction
                                                                1. Shivering
                                                            2. Too hot
                                                              1. Body hairs stay flat
                                                                1. Vasodilation
                                                                  1. Sweat produced
                                                            3. Blood Sugar level
                                                              1. Controlled by insulin and glucagon
                                                                1. Glucose level too high
                                                                  1. Insulin secreted
                                                                    1. Liver converts glucose into glycogen
                                                                      1. Glucose level goes down
                                                                  2. Glucose level too low
                                                                    1. Glucagon secreted
                                                                      1. Liver converts glycogen back into glucose
                                                                        1. Glucose level goes up
                                                                    2. Secreted from pancreas
                                                                      1. Released from a gland
                                                                    3. Diabetes
                                                                      1. Disorder in which the blood glucose levels remain too high
                                                                        1. Type 1
                                                                          1. Cause: lack of insulin
                                                                            1. Treatment: monitoring the diet, injecting insulin
                                                                          2. Type 2
                                                                            1. Cause: becoming resistant to insulin
                                                                              1. Treatment: control of diet, exercise
                                                                    4. These molecules are taken into the body during digestion
                                                                    5. Parts of the kidney
                                                                      1. Cortex
                                                                        1. The darker outer region that contains many blood vessels which branch from the renal artery.
                                                                          1. Circulation
                                                                        2. Renal vein
                                                                          1. Carries blood away from the kidney to the heart.
                                                                            1. Circulation
                                                                          2. Renal artery
                                                                            1. Carries blood from the heart into the kidney.
                                                                              1. Circulation
                                                                            2. Medulla
                                                                              1. Contains pyramids and is the middle layer of the kidney.
                                                                              2. Pelvis
                                                                                1. The contents of the pyramids drain into here
                                                                                  1. Ureter
                                                                                    1. Carries urine to the bladder
                                                                              3. Urinary system
                                                                                1. Bladder
                                                                                  1. Urethra
                                                                                    1. Remove waste from the body
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