Freedom Walkers

Mind Map by trinitybyrd, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by trinitybyrd over 6 years ago



Resource summary

Freedom Walkers
  1. Lack of civil rights in Montgomery, Alabama during the years 1955-1956.
    1. Segregation in public transportation, mainly buses.
      1. Influential figures who took a stand for the interests of the black community.
        1. Jo Ann Robinson, a teacher at an all black college . (Alabama State college)
          1. One day Robinson took a seat among one of the white only rows, and was kicked off of the bus.
            1. Robinson became very angry, knowing her basic rights as a human being. She joined the Women's Political Council (WPC), to fight segregation.
              1. The WPC met with numerous bus companies to try and change bus segregation. The bus companies did not grant the WPC's wishes. The WPC began to spread talk of a boycott.
          2. Claudette Colvin, a fifteen-year old girl who stands up for her right to not have to give up her seat in the black section to a white rider.
            1. Colvin is charged with violationg segregation laws and assault for resisting arrest. E.D. Nixon took a particular interest in Colvin's case.
              1. Nixon contacts Clifford Durr, a liberal white attorney. Together the pair got in touch with Fred Gray, a black attorney.
                1. Colvin was found guilty of assault and fined. She was also placed uder probation in her parent's custody.
                  1. Nixon wanted to take a case to the federal court. The hope was that this case would end bus discrimination. Colvin's case wasn't the right case, but Nixon would find a worthy case.
                    1. The first day of the Montgomery Bus Boycott
                      1. Rosa Parks was found guilty of violating segregation laws, but Fred Gray appealed the verdict.
                        1. Thousands upon thousands of black citizens met at the Holt Street Baptist Church, to vote on whether or not to continue with the boycott.
                          1. It was a unanimous vote that the boycott would continue until "comes the first rainy day".
                            1. The MIA started it's own car pool compromised of 275-300 black-owned vehicles.
                              1. Members of the MIA donated great sums of money to the orginization.
                                1. The MIA continued to negotiate for more rights on buses. They had three demands: respectful treatment, hiring of black drivers on routes that go through black neighborhoods, and that blacks wouldn't have to give up their seats to white riders.
                                  1. Bus companies refused to meet the black riders' demands.
                                    1. The boycott continued.
                                      1. The bus companies began to lose large amounts of money.
                                        1. Bus fair was raised fifteen cents for white riders.
                                          1. A small amount of local whites openly supported the boycott and would drive black protestors in their cars.
                                            1. The situation in Montgomery got worse, and the mayor put his foot down.
                                              1. The mayor tried to discredit King and his fellow black leaders.
                                                1. White people began to violently attack King' and other black leaders' houses.
                                                  1. The boycott has been going on for eleven weeks, the bus company is on the verge of bankrupcy, and the sheriiff's office are calling to arrest many influential leaders.
                                                    1. These influential leaders began to turn themselves in and were set to have a trial in the near future. Among these leaders, was King, Parks, Nixon, Robinson and so many more.
                                                      1. At King's trial on March 19, 1956, he is found guilty with a bail of five hundred dollars or a year of hard labor.
                                                        1. KIng is released on bail.
                                                          1. On Juine 4, the white southern Alabama judges declared segregation on buses unconstitutional by the fourteenth amendment.
                                                            1. Montgomery attorneys appealed the ruling to the U.S. Supreme Court.
                                                              1. The boycott has been going on for six months now, and it would take many more months to recieve another ruling from the U.S. Supreme Court.
                                                                1. Many protesstors against MIA pulled many stunts to try and end the boycott, nne of which were sucessful.
                                                                  1. On November 13, bus segregation was declared unlawful, after nearly a year of boycotting the buses. The MIA car system was now illegal, but that didn't matter.
                                                                    1. Once the official court papers were published, bus segregation would be illegal.
                                                                      1. On December 20, the supreme court decision was final and bus segregation was over.
                                                                        1. Many violent acts were commited against former MIA members.
                                                                          1. Eventually, things settled down and lfe returned to its normal state, with a few threats here and there.
                                                                            1. Life all over the world was drastically improved thanks to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
                                                                            2. Martin Luther King, Jr., was stabbed in the chest, but recovered. On, April 4, 1968 King's life was ended by an assassination.
                                                  2. Mayor Gayle discouraged white citizens to help in the boycott in any fashion.
                2. Rosa Parks, a 42 year-old seamstress,who was also a dedicated member to the NAACP.
                  1. On the way home one evening, a bus driver demanded Parks give her seat to a white passenger. Parks refused, and was in turn arrested.
                    1. Cliffored and Virginia Durr were very close with Parks and bailed her out of jail.
                      1. Nixon felt very strongly that Rosa's case would be the perfect test case to take to the Federal court.
                        1. Rosa agreed to fight bus segregation, and Fred Gray agreed to represent her in the endeavor.
                          1. Fred Gray got in touch with Jo Ann Robinson and told her the news. Jo Ann then alerted many of her friends from the WPC, and they made a flyer challenging the black community to protest
                            1. The pamphlet told blacks not to ride the buses anywhere on Monday, December 5 1955, to protest the trial of Rosa Parks.
                  2. Martin Luther King, Jr., . a 26 year-old reverend, and president of the Montgomery Improvement Acossiation. (MiA)
                    1. King delivered an empowering speech to the whole black community about fighting for freedom.
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