Acids, Bases, PH and Buffers

Clarissa Mackay
Mind Map by Clarissa Mackay, updated more than 1 year ago
Clarissa Mackay
Created by Clarissa Mackay almost 6 years ago
60
6

Description

ACID BASE PH

Resource summary

Acids, Bases, PH and Buffers
  1. DEFINE ACID AND BASE
    1. Acid - Substance that release Hydrogen ions H+
      1. Strong acids completely dissociates
        1. Hydrochloric acid -HCl (Stomach)
          1. Lactic acid - C3H6O3
          2. Weak acids - does not dissociate
            1. Carbonic acid -H2CO3
              1. Cellular respiration - C02 + H20 > H2C03
              2. Amino acid
                1. Carboxylic acid - fatty acids
                  1. methanoic acid
                    1. ethanoic acid
                    2. Ascorbic acid - Vitamin C
                  2. Base - Substance that take up H+, Proton acceptors, aka alkali
                    1. Strong base - Completely dissociates
                      1. NaOH > NA + OH- Sodium hydroxide
                      2. Weak acid - does not dissociate
                        1. Magnesium Hydroxide - antacid
                          1. Aqueous ammonia - urine Amino group in proteins
                      3. Ionize
                        1. To dissociate into electrically charged species - H20 > H+ (acid) + OH- (base)
                        2. PH SCALE
                          1. Proportion of Hydrogens
                            1. 0-14
                              1. More H+, PH goes down 6-1
                                1. OH-, PH goes up 8
                                  1. PH = 7.35-7.45 BLOOD - NEEDS to be in this range
                                  2. ACIDOSIS - PH Below -7.35, INCREASED h+ concentration
                                    1. Respiratory Acidosis
                                      1. Higher CO2 > Higher H2Co3 > Higher H+
                                        1. Hypoventilation due to asthma, COPD, oedma
                                          1. Symptoms - Shortness of breath, arrhythmia, increased heart rate, Headaches
                                          2. Respiratory acidosis is when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially the blood, to become too acidic
                                            1. Lactoacidosis, anaerobic glycoysis
                                            2. Metabolic Acidosis
                                              1. Metabolic acidosis is increased acid produced or ingested by the body, the decreased renal excretion of acid, or bicarbonate loss from the body.
                                                1. Symptoms - Confusion, drowsiness, decreased BP, Kussmal respiration
                                                  1. Causes by
                                                    1. Diarrohea - LOss of Bicorbonate ions
                                                      1. fasting/starving - DIABETIES
                                                        1. Diabetic ketoacidosis
                                                          1. No insuline to move glucose, uses fat = creates keatones
                                                        2. Kidney failure
                                                          1. do not excrete H+ in urine
                                                          2. Lactoacidosis- shock
                                                            1. Low HC03-
                                                          3. Blood test results
                                                            1. Normal range PH 7.35-7.45 PACO2 4.7-6.0. kPA HC0-3 -19-29mmol/l
                                                              1. Respiratory
                                                                1. If the PH is point in the opposite direction to the PaCo2 and HC0-3
                                                                2. Metabolic
                                                                  1. If all 3 values are pointing in the same direction e.g low ph, low PaCo2, low HC03- or High, high, high
                                                                3. At Altitude Ph will rise, PCo2 will fall
                                                              2. ALKALOSIS - PH Above 7.45 decrease h+ concentration
                                                                1. Respiratory Alkalosis
                                                                  1. Hyperventilation
                                                                    1. Rise in PH, decrease Pco2, decrease H+
                                                                      1. Light headedness, hypokalemia, numbness
                                                                    2. Metabolic Alkalosis
                                                                      1. Caused by vomiting - getting ride of H+ (hydrochloric acid), Diuretics increases urine output. alkaline drug, dehydration
                                                                        1. Increase HC03- (bicarbonate)
                                                                          1. Confusion, tremors, muscle cramps, restlessness
                                                                      2. Buffers
                                                                        1. acid-balance regulation - resist ph change, can be acid or base Buffers are compounds which maintain constant PH when an acid or alkais are added
                                                                          1. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate - ECF buffer
                                                                            1. c02 + h20 <> H2Co3 <> H+ hC03- <> H+ cO3-2
                                                                              1. Acts as both a acid and base - system fails with respiratory system problems
                                                                            2. Phosphate Buffer system
                                                                              1. ICF - H+ release Urine
                                                                                1. H2P04- and HPo42-
                                                                              2. Haemoglobin
                                                                                1. Transports Co2
                                                                                  1. Buffers Co2 - CO2 + H20 + H2C03
                                                                              Show full summary Hide full summary

                                                                              Similar

                                                                              Intro, Neutralization, Salts
                                                                              ShreyaDas
                                                                              Solutions, Concentration and Limestone
                                                                              ShreyaDas
                                                                              The effect of lactic acid on Muscles, Tendons and Ligaments
                                                                              Dan Allibone
                                                                              OCR A2 Chemistry : Acids and Bases
                                                                              Sarah H-V
                                                                              Metal Oxides, Metal Hydroxides & Ammonia
                                                                              Tom Johnson
                                                                              Acids and Bases
                                                                              devibabyy66
                                                                              AQA (9-1) Topic 4
                                                                              https:// revisechemistry.uk
                                                                              Organic Chemistry 1 Primer: Lesson 1.9
                                                                              Proton Guru
                                                                              Acids and Alkalis Quiz
                                                                              Jeffrey Piggott
                                                                              Ch. 3: Water and the Fitness of the Environment Notes
                                                                              Emma Cress
                                                                              Solutions
                                                                              Lisa Endicott