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OCR A2 biology. Sustainability.

Created by Bethany. almost 6 years ago
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1 Definitions
1.1 Conservation is the active management of habitats in order to maintain or even increase the biodiversity within them. it allows sustainable use of the resources.
1.2 Preservation is keeping things as they are by banning or restricting human exploitation/contact.
2 Sustainable production in a temperate country
2.1 Coppicing
2.1.1 This is used because it takes advantage that deciduous trees don't die when they are cut down.
2.1.2 Trees are coppiced for their wood and in the following year, lots of new stems are produced. After nine years, a few stems have produced significant growth and this wood can be harvested.
2.1.3 Rotational coppicing is a coppicing cycle where each year a different are is coppiced. It maintains biodiversity.
2.1.4 Coppicing with standards is where not all trees in an area are coppiced but they are allowed to grow to full standards (referred to as a standard). It opens up the woodlands increasing the light levels on the woodlands and so increases biodiversity. Very labour intensive and is so usually done on a small scale.
2.2 Felling
2.2.1 Clear felling is the removal of all trees.
2.2.2 Selective felling is felling of the largest, most valuable trees while leaving other trees alone. Useful on steep slopes which reduces the risk of erosion and maintenance of nutrients in the soil.
2.3 Pollarding
2.3.1 This is like coppicing but involves cutting the tree higher up and is useful for places where the deer population is high, as they like to eat the emerging shoots.
2.4 Rotational times
2.4.1 The longer the rotational time, the more species diversity.The shorter the rotational time, the higher the economic benefit.
2.4.2 Shorter the rotational time, the more damaging it is because of the damaging machinery.
2.5 Sustainability in the UK.
2.5.1 Every part of the country has drawn up Biodiversity Action Plans, setting out priorities for conservation of species and habitats. On a local level, a variety of organisations take on responsibility for determining precise targets for conservation in their area, and drawing up detailed plans.
2.5.2 Habitat types are identified that should be considered for conservation.
2.5.3 Areas are designated SSSI for protection.
2.5.4 Plans usually involve the conservation of key species.
2.5.5 Surveys to identify what species live there and their needs.
2.5.6 Threats are identified:pollution, animals and humans.
2.5.7 Aims are used to maintain or increase biodiversity.
2.5.8 Local people are active in management.
3 Efficient production
3.1 Use of the most of the tree with little wastage.
3.2 Matching the tree species to the climate, topography and soil type. Planting trees the correct distance apart: too close-thin, tall and competition, too far away-not efficient use of the land.
3.3 Dynamic as conservation is constantly changing because it requires active management to adapt to ecosystems.
4 Why is conservation needed?
4.1 Natural resources were previously used on a small scale but due to the exponential population growth, humans need more intense methods to exploit resources.
4.2 Economic
4.2.1 Ability to use resources: medicinal drugs, harvesting fish and tourism.
4.3 Social
4.3.1 Aesthetic reasons.
4.4 Ethical
4.4.1 Human responsibility.
5 Galapagos Islands
5.1 Located on the equator to the west of Ecuador.
5.2 Made of 24 islands.
5.2.1 Live in isolation from S. America. Allopatric (geographical) isolation.
5.3 Large number of endemic species.
5.4 Visited by Charles Darwin in 1835 and discovered evolution.
5.5 Threats to species
5.5.1 Population growth. People moving from Ecuador.
5.5.2 Overfishing; sea cucumbers are under threat.
5.5.3 Tourism: expensive destination but many people are interested in the endemic species.
5.5.4 Introduction of exotic species and human activity are the main threats to the Galapagos Islands.
5.6 Conservation projects
5.6.1 Goat culling Humanely killed as the goats out-compete other species. Use of trained hunters, high performance weapons and GPS. Goats wore radio collars. Increase in vegetation, e.g. fern, trees and other vegetation.
5.6.2 Captive breeding of giant tortoises

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