B1 - Diet, Disease + Drugs

Anna Wolski
Mind Map by Anna Wolski, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna Wolski
Created by Anna Wolski about 6 years ago
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Diet, Disease + Drugs

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B1 - Diet, Disease + Drugs
  1. Diet and Disease
    1. Healthy Diet
      1. Contains the right amount + proportions of NUTRIENTS + energy that the body needs
        1. No Balanced Diet
          1. Malnourished
          2. Food Contains
            1. Carbohydrates, Fats + Protein
              1. Uses in Body
                1. Release Energy
                  1. Provide Nutrients to build Cells
                2. Mineral Ions + Vitamins
                  1. Needed in Small Amounts so cells can work properly
                3. Effects on Health from Food
                  1. Overweight or Underweight
                    1. Type 2 Diabetes
                  2. Controlling Mass
                    1. Metabolic Rate
                      1. The rate at which all the chemical reactions are carried out in the body
                        1. Affected by
                          1. Muscle
                            1. Exercise
                              1. Inherited Factors
                              2. Men usually have higher rate than women of same mass
                                1. Muscle cells use more energy than other cells
                              3. Energy
                                1. Body gains energy from eating food
                                  1. Energy used during exercise
                                    1. Balance between energy taken in + energy used affects your mass
                                      1. More energy used than gained in food
                                        1. Body loses mass
                                        2. More energy gained than used
                                          1. Body gains mass
                                    2. Lifestyle + Disease
                                      1. Lifestyle
                                        1. The way we live, including what we eat and do which affects how active we are
                                          1. Lifestyle factors can harm health + lead to disease
                                          2. Someone who exercises regularly is more likely to stay healthy than a person who doesn't
                                            1. Inherited Factors
                                              1. Not lifestyle factors but can affect health
                                                1. eg. some people have genes that give them higher blood cholesterol than others
                                              2. Pathogens and Infection
                                                1. Microorganisms that cause disease = PATHOGENS
                                                  1. Pathogens include bacteria and viruses
                                                    1. Pathogens can reproduce rapidly once inside body
                                                      1. Large Numbers of Pathogens make us ill
                                                        1. Semmelweis
                                                          1. Doctor in mid-1800s
                                                            1. Wondered why many women died of infection after childbirth
                                                              1. Insisted doctors wash hands between patients
                                                            2. Immune System
                                                              1. Body has different ways to protect itself against Pathogens
                                                                1. IMMUNE SYSTEM helps protect body against pathogens
                                                                  1. WHITE BLOOD CELLS part of Immune System
                                                                    1. Antibodies
                                                                      1. Produced by WHITE BLOOD CELLS + are specific to a pathogen
                                                                        1. This means they can only destroy that kind of pathogen
                                                                          1. They can't destroy any other kind of bacteria or virus
                                                                        2. Immunisiation
                                                                          1. Makes someone immune to certain disease
                                                                            1. Vaccination
                                                                              1. Someone Immune by Vaccine
                                                                                1. MMR VACCINE makes children immune to Measles, Mumps + Rubella for the rest of their lives
                                                                                  1. Vaccine
                                                                                    1. 1. Vaccine contains a dead or weakened form of disease
                                                                                      1. 2. Causes White Blood Cells make antibodies
                                                                                        1. 3. White Blood Cells can remember the antibodies if the live pathogen infects
                                                                                      2. Mutations of Pathogens
                                                                                        1. 1. Produces new strain of pathogen
                                                                                          1. 2. Antibodies against the old strain may not recognise the new strain
                                                                                            1. 3. People vaccinated against old strain not immune to new strain
                                                                                              1. 4. New Strain may spread rapidly causing epidemic/pandemic
                                                                                            2. Treating Diseases
                                                                                              1. Some medicines, eg. Painkillers, only treat symtoms
                                                                                                1. Cannot kill Pathogens
                                                                                                2. Antiboitics
                                                                                                  1. Using
                                                                                                    1. Kills Pathogens
                                                                                                      1. Specific antibiotic treats a specific bacteria
                                                                                                        1. Deaths have decreased since antibiotics
                                                                                                      2. Antibiotic Resistance
                                                                                                        1. 1. Mutation can produce new antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria
                                                                                                          1. 2. When used non-resistant bacteria die
                                                                                                            1. 3. Resistant bacteria increases, new antibiotic needed
                                                                                                              1. 4. No new antibiotic, bacteria spreads
                                                                                                            2. Cultures
                                                                                                              1. Disinfectants + Antibiotics can be studied using cultures of microrganisms
                                                                                                                1. Other microorganisms from the air can contaminate cultures
                                                                                                                  1. Prevention of contamination
                                                                                                                    1. 1. Sterilise
                                                                                                                      1. kills microorganisms
                                                                                                                      2. 2. Sterilise Inoculating Loops
                                                                                                                        1. Sealing Petri Dish
                                                                                                                          1. Stops microorganisms from getting in
                                                                                                                    2. Drugs
                                                                                                                      1. New Drugs
                                                                                                                        1. Chemicals that affect how the body works
                                                                                                                          1. New MEDICAL DRUGS must be tested before they can be prescribed
                                                                                                                            1. 1. Possible Drug made
                                                                                                                              1. 2. Computer Simulation - cells
                                                                                                                                1. reduces animal testing
                                                                                                                                  1. 3. Cells, Tissue - toxin works
                                                                                                                                    1. 4. Research - focus on diseases
                                                                                                                                      1. 5. Animal - living organisms/ side effects
                                                                                                                                        1. 6. Long-term use - effects
                                                                                                                                          1. 7. i) Human - safety
                                                                                                                                            1. Healthy, small number of patients
                                                                                                                                              1. ii) Small number - disease - effective, safe
                                                                                                                                                1. iii) Large number
                                                                                                                                                  1. iv) Long-term
                                                                                                                                                    1. 8. Licence
                                                                                                                                  2. Good Medicine
                                                                                                                                    1. Safe
                                                                                                                                      1. Stable
                                                                                                                                        1. Taken in + Removed by body
                                                                                                                                          1. Effective
                                                                                                                                          2. Placebo
                                                                                                                                            1. Some trials, given Placebo
                                                                                                                                              1. Does not contain drug
                                                                                                                                                1. Results compared to results with drug
                                                                                                                                            2. Thalidomide + Statins
                                                                                                                                              1. Medical Drugs
                                                                                                                                                1. Using
                                                                                                                                                  1. 1. Developed as a Sleeping Pill
                                                                                                                                                    1. 2. Also used to treat morning sickness during pregnancy
                                                                                                                                                      1. 3. Caused severe limb deformities in babies
                                                                                                                                                        1. 4. Thalidomide was banned
                                                                                                                                                        2. treats Leprosy, Auto-immune diseases + Cancer
                                                                                                                                                        3. Recreational Drugs
                                                                                                                                                          1. Used for effect not medical purpose
                                                                                                                                                            1. Cannabis
                                                                                                                                                              1. Usually burned + smoke breathed in
                                                                                                                                                                1. Smoke contains chemials
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Causes mental illness for regular users
                                                                                                                                                              2. Addiction
                                                                                                                                                                1. Some drugs, eg. heroin + cocaine, very addictive
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Changes Chemical Processes in body which makes someone dependant on the drug
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Use more of the drug to gain effect
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Stop using drug - withdrawal symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Drugs and Health
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Drugs evaluated by comparing beneficial + harmful effects
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Decides which has greater impact
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Impact of Drugs
                                                                                                                                                                          1. More people treated in Hospital for effects of legal drugs, eg. tobacco + alcohol, than use of illegal drugs
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Because more people smoke or misuse alcohol
                                                                                                                                                                              1. More suffer harm from tobacco + alcohol
                                                                                                                                                                        3. Drugs in Sport
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Some drugs affect Sporting Performance
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Stimulants
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Increase rate of body functions
                                                                                                                                                                                1. eg. Heart Rate
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Anabolic Steriods
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Stimulate muscle growth
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Bans in Sport
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Use to improve performance in sport competition - considered UNETHICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Reasons
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Side effects harm athletes
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Drugs give unfair advantage over other athletes
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Some drugs affect performances are legal + can be prescribed
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Still banned in Sport Competitions
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